CDIAC is working on the following new or updated NDPs and hopes to have them available (both in printed format and online) in FY 1998. Several have already been completed and are available as noted.
(NDP-026C), by Carole Hahn (University of Arizona, Tucson). This comprehensive database will extend the NDP-026 series of surface-observed cloud databases to include observations over oceans from 1952-1995 and over land from 1971-1996.
Meteor Cruise 22/5 in the South Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A10, December 1992-January 1993 (ORNL/CDIAC-113, NDP-066), by Kenneth M. Johnson and Douglas W. R. Wallace (Brookhaven National Laboratory), Bernd Schneider (Baltic Sea Research Institute), Ludger Mintrop (Institute for Marine Sciences), and prepared by Alex Kozyr (CDIAC). This data documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide (TCO2) and total alkalinity (TALK) at hydrographic stations, as well as the underway partial pressure of CO2 (PCO2) during the R/V Meteor Cruise 22/5 in the South Atlantic Ocean (Section A10). Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), the cruise began in Rio de Janeiro on December 17, 1992, and ended after 36 days at sea in Capetown, South Africa, on January 31, 1993. Measurements made along WOCE Section A10 included pressure, temperature, and salinity [measured by conductivity, temperature, and depth (CTD) sensor], bottle salinity, bottle oxygen, phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, silicate, cholorofluorocarbons (CFC-11, CFC-12), TCO2, TALK, and underway pCO2.
Completed November 1998. (http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/oceans/ndp_066/ndp066.html)
fCO2 Systems during the R/V Meteor Cruise 36/1 in the North Atlantic Ocean (ORNL/CDIAC-114, NDP-067), by A. Koertzinger, L. Mintrop, J. C. Duinker (University of Kiel) and prepared by Alex Kozyr (CDIAC). Measurements of the fugacity of carbon dioxide (fCO2) in surface seawater are an important part of studies of the global carbon cycle and its anthropogenic perturbation. An important step toward the thorough interpretation of the vast amount of available fCO2 data is the establishment of a database system that would make such measurements more widely available for use in understanding the basin- and global-scale distribution of fCO2 and its influence on the oceanic uptake of anthropogenic CO2. Such an effort, however, is based on knowledge of the comparability of data sets from different laboratories. An International Intercomparison Exercise of Underway fCO2 Systems was proposed and carried out by the Institute of Marine Research at the University of Kiel during the R/V Meteor Cruise 36/1 from Hamilton, Bermuda, to Las Palmas, Gran Canaria, Spain. Nine groups from six countries (Australia, Denmark, Germany, France, Japan, and the United States) participated in this ambitious exercise, bringing together 15 participants with seven underway fCO2 systems, one discrete fCO2 system and two underway pH systems, as well as discrete
systems for alkalinity and total dissolved inorganic carbon. This report presents only the results of the underway measurements of fCO2.
Completed January 1999. (http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/oceans/ndp_067/ndp067.html)
, by Sandra Brown (Oregon State University) and Anantha Prasad and Louis Iverson (U.S. Forest Service). This is
the fourth database to be published by CDIAC concerning carbon fluxes to the atmosphere from tropical land-use changes. The database consists of estimates of geographically referenced carbon densities of forest soils and vegetation in tropical Asia. The vegetation carbon densities are based on potential carbon
estimates, which are derived from climatic, edaphic, and geomorphic indices and vegetation and are subsequently modified on the basis of population densities, climate, and vegetation data. The soil organic carbon estimates are calculated from pedon data for tropical forests and mapped to a texture/climate map
for all of tropical Asia.
, by Michael Trolier and James W. C.
White (Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado), and Kenneth Masarie and Pieter Tans (Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory, NOAA), and prepared by Antoinette Brenkert (CDIAC). Stable isotope 13C/12C and 18O/16O ratios in the atmosphere expressed as deviations (13C and
18O) from the standard 13C/12C and 18O/16O ratios (Pee Dee River, South Carolina, Craig 1961, Craig 1957) were measured, starting in 1990, as part of a joint program between the Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research (INSTAAR) at the University of Colorado and the NOAA Climate Monitoring and
Diagnostics Laboratory (CMDL) at six land sites and aboard two container ships in the Pacific Ocean. It was extended in January 1991 with a site in South Korea and in January 1992 with 19 additional land sites. Measurements from the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Organisation (CSIRO), Australia
were merged with the NOAA/CMDL data after comparison for effects of difference in methodology.
, by Paul Quay and Johnny Stutsman (School of Oceanography, University of Washington)
and prepared by Linda Allison (CDIAC). This database will offer precise measurements of atmospheric methane and 13C/12C in atmospheric methane from flask air samples collected at eight sites worldwide
and aboard NOAA cruises in the Pacific Ocean. The eight sites include Olympic Peninsula, Washington; Cape Grim, Tasmania; Fraserdale, Ontario; Marshall Islands; Baring Head, New Zealand; Mauna Loa, Hawaii; Point Barrow, Alaska; and American Samoa. The measurements span the period 1988 to mid-1996. These data are useful for global methane budget analyses and for determining the atmospheric isotopic composition of methane. All isotopic measurements have been corrected for standard drift.
, by Frank Millero (University of Miami). These carbon-related data were obtained during the Spanish R/V Hesperides
cruise along WOCE Section A5 in the Atlantic Ocean along approximately 24° N.
CDIAC has published the following database in the DB series online during FY 1998.
by Paul Novelli and Ken Masari [NOAA Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory (CMDL)] and prepared by Linda Allison and Tom Boden (CDIAC). The database offers select carbon monoxide (CO) mixing ratios from eleven field and aircraft measurement programs around the world. The correlative data presented in this database provide an internally consistent, ground-based picture of CO in the lower atmosphere during Spring and Fall 1994. The data
show the regional importance of two CO sources: fossil-fuel burning in urbanized areas and biomass burning in regions in the Southern Hemisphere.
Completed December 1998. (http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/epubs/db/db1020/db1020.html)
Updated NDPs and DBs
, by David Easterling, Thomas Karl, Jay Lawrimore, and Stephen Del Greco (National
Climatic Data Center). The data have been updated through 1994 and expanded to include not only the 138 stations in the original version of NDP-042 but also most of the remaining stations in the HCN, for a total of 1062 stations. This database is sure to be one of the most valuable climate resources available for
the United States.
, which provides continuous high-frequency measurements of methane, nitrous oxide, three chlorofluorocarbons, methyl chloroform, chloroform, and carbon tetrachloride. This database supports analyses and monitoring related to both greenhouse gases and the Earth's ozone layer. The data were contributed by R. Prinn, D. Cunnold, P. Fraser, R. Weiss, P.
Simmonds, F. Alyea, L. P. Steele, and D. Hartley; they were prepared for online distribution by CDIAC's Tom Boden. Data from 1978 through March 1998 are now available for Cape Grim, Tasmania; Point Matatula, American Samoa; Ragged Point, Barbados; Mace Head, Ireland; and Trinidad Head, California (stations also previously existed at Cape Meares, Oregon, and Adrigole, Ireland). All ALE and GAGE data have been recalculated according to the current AGAGE calibration standards, thus creating a unified ALE/GAGE/AGAGE data set based upon the same standards; and the AGAGE database has been completely re-computed to introduce a new and improved pollution analysis scheme.
Completed January 1999. (http//cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/ndps/alegage.html)
, by Richard A. Feely, Marilyn F. Lamb, and Dana J. Greeley [NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL)], and Rik Wanninkoff [(NOAA/Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML)] and prepared by
Linda J. Allison (CDIAC).
We also plan to have two new issues of our newsletter, CDIAC Communications, available during FY 1999. Look for these online (http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/newsletr/ccindex.html); if you let us know, we will be glad to notify you via e-mail when a new issue is online. Printed copies of CDIAC Communications are available on request. Remember to check the "new" page on our Web site (http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/new/new.html) for announcements of the latest CDIAC products.
CDIAC Communications Issue No. 25, Fall 1998 was put online in December 1998.
Trends Online Update
Although CDIAC will not print a hard-copy version of Trends during FY 1999, we do plan to update and expand the Trends Online Atmospheric CO2 and Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions sections and add to the Trends Online Climate section. The following summarizes the FY 1999 activities planned for each of these sections:
Atmospheric CO2 levels. During FY 1999 we hope to add (A) or update (U) the following records:
U Vostok ice core record (Barnola et al.)
U Mauna Loa, Barrow, American Samoa, and South Pole records from SIO (Keeling and Whorf)
U Baring Head in situ record (Manning et al.)
U Mt. Cimone in situ record (Colombo and Santaguida)
U Amsterdam Island in situ record (Gaudry et al.)
U K-puszta in situ record (Haszpra)
U Lampedusa Island flask record (Ciattoglia and Chamard)
U Wellington 14CO2 record (Manning and Melhuish)
A Cape Grim 13C record (Francey and Allison)
Fossil-fuel CO2 emissions. This section was modified during FY 1998 to include historical fossil-fuel CO2 emissions back to 1751. During FY 1999 we will update:
U Global, regional, and national fossil fuel CO2 emission estimates for 1751-1996 (Marland et al.)
Climate. During FY 1999 we will add to the Trends Online Temperature section and mark up selected Trends data for the precipitation section. In addition we will establish a new section detailing regional trends in cloud amount. We will offer the following records:
U Vostok ice core temperature record (Jouzel et al.)
U Global and hemispheric satellite temperature records (Spencer and Christy)
U Global, hemispheric, and zonal radiosonde temperature records (Angell)
U National and regional temperature and precipitation records for the
contiguous United States (Karl et al.)
U National and regional temperature and precipitation records for Canada (Hogg et al.)
A China cloud amount trends (Kaiser)
A Former Soviet Union cloud amount trends (Kaiser)