Whats Coming in FY 2000
CDIAC is working on the following new data and information products and hopes to have them available (both in printed format and online) in FY 2000. We continue to update our most popular product, Trends Online, and this section outlines our FY 2000 plans for the product. Lastly, this section presents our expectations for FY 2000 from a systems development and project support standpoint. Remember to check the "New" page on our Web site (http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/new/new.html) for announcements of the latest CDIAC products.
A Database of Herbaceous Vegetation Responses to Elevated Atmospheric CO2 (ORNL/CDIAC-120, NDP-073) by Michael Jones and Peter Curtis, The Ohio State University, and prepared by CDIAC's Bob Cushman and Antoinette Brenkert. A multiparameter database of responses by herbaceous vegetation to increased atmospheric CO2 levels was compiled to support a statistically rigorous meta-analysis of research results across many studies. Data were retrieved from the published literature for 121 independent CO2-enrichment studies, covering 61 species and 26 response parameters.
Completed November 1999
Geographical Distribution of Biomass Carbon in Tropical Southeast Asian Forests: A Data Base by Sandra Brown, Winrock International; Louis R. Iverson, USDA Forest Service (Delaware, Ohio); and Anantha Prasad, University of Illinois; and prepared by Bob Cushman and Antoinette Brenkert, CDIAC, and Tammy Beaty, ORNL. This is the fourth database to be published by CDIAC concerning carbon fluxes to the atmosphere from tropical land-use changes. The database consists of estimates of geographically referenced carbon densities of forest soils and vegetation in tropical Asia. The vegetation carbon densities are based on potential carbon estimates, which are derived from climatic, edaphic, and geomorphic indices and vegetation and are subsequently modified on the basis of population densities, climate, and vegetation data. The soil organic carbon estimates are calculated from pedon data for tropical forests and mapped to a texture/climate map for all of tropical Asia.
Carbon-13 and Oxygen-18 Data from the NOAA Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory Flask Sampling Network, 1990-1997, by James W. C. White and Bruce H. Vaughn, University of Colorado; Kenneth A. Masarie and Pieter P. Tans, CMDL/NOAA; and Michael Trolier, Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research (INSTAAR), and prepared by Linda Allison and Antoinette Brenkert, CDIAC. Stable isotope 13C/12C and 18O/16O ratios in the atmosphere were measured, beginning in 1990 and extending through the end of 1997, as part of a joint program between INSTAAR at the University of Colorado and NOAA/(CMDL). Data represent 42 sites for 13C sampling and 21 sites for 18O sampling and include shipboard as well as land sampling. Data are given for all sites where at least 18 months of data are available through the end of 1997.
Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained during the R/V Hespérides Cruise in the Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A5, July 14-August 15, 1992), contributed by Frank Millero and Douglas M. Campbell, University of Miami; Sara Fiol, Universidad de la Coruña; and Gregorio Parrilla, Instituto Español de Oceanografía, and prepared by CDIAC's Linda Allison and Alex Kozyr. This data documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide (TCO2), total alkalinity (TALK), and pH at hydrographic stations during the R/V Hespérides oceanographic cruise in the Atlantic Ocean (Section A5). Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), the cruise began in Cadiz, Spain, and ended in Miami, Florida.
Completed June 2000
Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V John V. Vickers Cruise in the Pacific Ocean (WOCE Section P13, NOAA CGC92 Cruise, August 4-October 21, 1992, by Andrew Dickson and David Keeling, SIO, and John Bullister, Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL), and prepared by CDIAC's Alex Kozyr. This data documen-tation discusses the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide (TCO2) and total alkalinity (TALK) at hydrographic stations during the R/V John V. Vickers oceanographic cruise in the Pacific Ocean (Section P13). Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Climate and Global Change Program, the cruise began in Los Angeles on August 4, 1992, with transit line (Leg 0) to Dutch Harbor, Alaska. On August 16, the ship departed Dutch Harbor with occupations of stations on Leg 1 of WOCE section P13. On September 15, 1992 the R/V John V. Vickers arrived to Kwajalein, Marshall Islands, for emergency repairs and after 11 days in port departed for Leg 2 on September 26, 1992. The cruise ended on October 21 in Noumea, New Caledonia. Measurements made along WOCE Section P13 included pressure, temperature, salinity [measured by conductivity, temperature, and depth sensor (CTD)], bottle salinity, bottle oxygen, phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, silicate, chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-11, CFC-12), TCO2, and TALK. The TCO2 was measured by coulometry using a Single-Operator Multiparameter Metabolic Analyzer (SOMMA). The overall precision and accuracy of the analyses was ±2 mol/kg. Samples collected for TALK were measured by potentiometric titration; precision was ±4 mol/kg.
Comparison of the Carbon System Parameters at the Global CO2 Survey Crossover Locations in the North and South Pacific Ocean, 1990-1996, by R. A. Feely, M. F. Lamb, D. J. Greeley, PMEL, and R. Wanninkhof, NOAA/Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, and prepared by CDIAC's L. J. Allison and D. C. Griffith. As a collaborative program to measure global ocean carbon inventories and provide estimates of the anthropogenic carbon dioxide uptake by the oceans, NOAA and DOE have sponsored the collection of ocean carbon measurements as part of the WOCE and Ocean-Atmosphere Carbon Exchange Study cruises. The cruises discussed here occurred in the North and South Pacific from 1990 through 1996. The carbon parameters from these 30 crossover locations have been compared to ensure that a consistent global data set emerges from the survey cruises. The results indicate that for dissolved inorganic carbon, fugacity of CO2, and pH, the agreements at most crossover locations are well within the design specifications for the global CO2 survey; whereas, in the case of total alkalinity, the agreement between crossover locations is not as close.
Completed December 1999
Atmospheric Methyl Chloride by M. A. K. Khalil and R. A. Rasmussen, Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology, and prepared by CDIAC's Tom Boden. This data set provides monthly average concentrations of atmospheric methyl chloride taken from seven locations distributed among the polar, middle, and tropical latitudes of both hemispheres. The seven primary sites include Pt. Barrow, Alaska; Cape Kumukahi and Mauna Loa, Hawaii; Cape Matatula, Samoa; Cape Grim, Tasmania; and the South Pole and Palmer Station, Antarctica. Concentration measurements from these seven sites cover a period of 16 years, extending from 1981 to 1997. Monthly data taken between 1987 and 1989 from 20 short-term sites and vertical distribution measured at various latitudes are also provided. Air samples were collected from various sites in stainless steel flasks and methyl chloride concentrations were measured using an Electron Capture Gas Chromatograph. Concentrations are reported as mixing ratios in dry air. The concentrations are determined by using a set of calibration standards that are referenced against a primary standard which is also used to establish the absolute concentration. The primary standards were prepared by the investigators in the absence of an available standard from a centralized location.
Completed February 2000
We plan to have two new issues of our newsletter available during FY 2000, the first due out in June. Look for these online (http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/newsletr/ccindex.html); if you let us know, we will be glad to notify you via e-mail when a new issue is online. Printed copies of CDIAC Communications are available on request.
The ALE/GAGE/AGAGE Network by Prinn et al. and prepared by CDIAC's Tom Boden will be updated through part of 1999. The data will be presented relative to current AGAGE calibration standards and with improved pollution analysis schemes.
Annual and Seasonal Global Temperature Deviations in the Troposphere and Low Stratosphere, 1958-1998 by James Angell (NOAA Air Resources Laboratory) will be updated and prepared by CDIAC's Dale Kaiser and Sonja Jones. Data from a global network of 63 radiosonde stations were used to estimate temperature deviations from 1958 through 1998. These estimates are categorized vertically (for the surface, troposphere, tropopause, low stratosphere, and the surface up to 100 mb) and horizontally (for the globe, the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, and the North and South Polar, North and South Temperate, North and South Subtropical, Tropical, and Equatorial latitudinal zones). The data were obtained from Monthly Climatic Data for the World and Climatic Data for the World, from the Global Telecommunications System (GTS) Network, and from National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) files. Based on this network, Angell reported that during 1958-1998 the global, near-surface air temperature warmed by 0.14 C/decade, and the troposphere layer warmed by 0.10 C/decade. The tropopause cooled in the extratropics but warmed slightly in the tropics. The low-stratospheric layer cooled by about 0.4° C/decade in the tropics and extratropics. At both the surface and in the troposphere, 1998 was the warmest year of the 41-year record, but when the influence of the powerful El Niño of 1997-1998 on these temperatures is taken into account, 1990 remains the warmest year of the record.
Completed October 1999
Note: Updated methods and trends, including graphics, for Angell's Global, Hemispheric, and Zonal Temperature Deviations Derived from Radiosonde Records, are also available through CDIAC's Trends Online. (http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/trends/temp/angell/angell.html)
Publications, Presentations, and Awards by R. M. Cushman, CDIAC. This online bibliography lists CDIAC's journal articles, book and proceedings chapters, numeric data packages and online databases, other ORNL and DOE reports published by CDIAC, presentations by CDIAC staff, and awards presented to CDIAC since its establishment in 1982. This publication is available online only.
Completed January 2000
Although CDIAC will not print a hard-copy version of Trends during FY 2000, we do plan to update and expand the four existing sections. The following summarizes the FY 2000 activities planned for each of these sections. We hope to add (A) or update (U) the following records:
Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Carbon Isotopes
U Atmospheric CO2 records from sites in the SIO air sampling network (Keeling and Whorf)
U Atmospheric CO2 records from sites in the NOAA/CMDL continuous monitoring network (Thoning and Tans)
U Atmospheric CO2 records from sites in the NOAA/CMDL flask air sampling network (Conway and Tans) Completed February 2000
U Atmospheric CO2 record from flask measurements at Lampedusa Island (Ciattoglia and Chamard)
U Atmospheric CO2 record from in situ measurements at Mt. Cimone (Colombo and Santaguida)
U Atmospheric CO2 record from in situ measurements at Baring Head (Manning et al.)
U In situ d13CO2 from Cape Grim, Tasmania, Australia (Francey and Allison)
U Atmospheric D14CO2 record from Wellington, New Zealand (Manning and Melhuish)
Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel consumption
U Global, regional, and national fossil-fuel CO2 emissions (Marland et al.)
A Historic isotopic temperature record from the Vostok ice core (Petit et al.) Completed January 2000
U Global, hemispheric, and zonal temperature deviations derived from radiosonde records (Angell) Completed October 1999
A Global and hemispheric satellite temperature records (Spencer and Christy)
U Trends in total cloud amount over China (Kaiser)
During early FY 2000 CDIAC will be busy preparing for the AmeriFlux/MODIS BIOME-BGC model validation exercise. CDIAC will prepare data submission guidance for the participating AmeriFlux sites and establish mechanisms for data transfers. Ideally CDIAC will simply "mirror" servers at the majority of participating sites. We will also need to write computer codes to automate the processing of data files containing the prescribed micrometeorological parameters submitted by the sites, perform cursory data checks, and re-format the data into common units and a standardized format for ease of use by the participating modeling groups. Programs will also need to be written to automate reading the resulting model output and generating graphics suitable for immediate posting on the AmeriFlux Web site. It is expected that roughly ten monitoring sites and ten modeling groups will participate in the exercise.
Tom Boden will attend and present CDIAC's recent data management activities at the 1999 AmeriFlux Science Team Meeting in Denver. (October 1999)
We expect to finalize AmeriFlux data from
We expect to post preliminary AmeriFlux data from
We expect the following Ameriflux Web developments
Post a FLUXNET/AmeriFlux bibliographic database with interactive capabilities
Post a master site information database with interactive capabilities
Develop capabilities to produce automated site descriptions from the master site information database
CARINA, a new global-change program, has been developed to synthesize carbon dioxide data collected in the North Atlantic for the last 15 years. CARINA (CARbon In the North Atlantic) was announced by marine scientists from eleven countries at the CO2 in the North Atlantic Workshop in Germany. CDIAC, represented at the workshop by Alex Kozyr, was named as a prime data center for preservation and distribution of this final international North Atlantic data set. This activity will complement CDIAC's role in PICES (North Pacific Marine Science Organization) working group 13 on CO2), making CDIAC the leading data center in the world for oceanic CO2 measurements.
The GLobal Ocean Data Analysis Project (GLODAP) is a cooperative effort of investigators funded for synthesis and modeling projects through NOAA, DOE and the National Science Foundation (NSF). Cruises conducted as part of WOCE, Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) and NOAA Ocean-Atmosphere Exchange Study (OACES) over the decade of the 90's have generated oceanographic data of unparalleled quality and quantity. Most of the data have been reported to national archive facilities, but have not been integrated into an internally consistent global data set. GLODAP will compile that data set and examine the global distribution and inventories of oxygen, nutrients, natural and anthropogenic carbon species, natural and bomb-produced radiocarbon, and 13C. These estimates will be used to infer nutrient remineralization ratios (Redfield ratios) and the rate of anthropogenic CO2, 13C and bomb 14C uptake in the oceans. These estimates provide an important benchmark against which future observational studies will be compared. They also provide tools for the direct evaluation of numerical ocean carbon models.
Our plans for FY 2000 include developing applications that permit users to spatially and temporally sub-set some of our larger data sets. These Web accessible applications will take advantage of our recently purchased data management and analysis software. Likely candidates include the Global Historical Climate Network (GHCN) records and the Carbon Dioxide Fossil-Fuel Emissions database. In order to take fullest advantage of our sub-setting tools, we will first review our metadata holdings and the underlying standards. We plan to expand the metadata associated with each of our products and to make sure that current metadata records are complete.