CDIAC ANNUAL REPORT 2000

Data and Information Products

 | 3.1 New Products | 3.2 Updated Products | 3.3 Trends Online | 3.4 Newsletters, Reports, and Additional Online Publications | 3.5 What's Coming in FY 2001

3. Data and Information Products

CDIAC’s carbon dioxide-related products provide data and information in several areas relevant to the greenhouse effect and global climate change. These areas include records of the concentration of CO2 and other radiatively active gases in the atmosphere, the role of the terrestrial biosphere and the oceans in the biogeochemical cycles of greenhouse gases, emissions of CO2 to the atmosphere, long-term climate trends, the effects of elevated CO2 on vegetation, and the vulnerability of coastal areas to rising sea level.

CDIAC packages and releases holdings in the form of data products [e.g., numeric data packages (NDPs), databases (DBs), and a computer model package (CMP)] and printed publications. All products are provided free of charge and are available while supplies last. Data files and documentation (text or HTML version), which accompany the data products, may be accessed and downloaded from CDIAC’s Web site (http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/), from CDIAC’s anonymous FTP (file transfer protocol) area (ftp://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov), or requested directly from CDIAC on various types of media (e.g., CD-ROM, floppy diskette). Printed reports are available from CDIAC on request. All technical questions (e.g., methodology or accuracy) should be directed to the CDIAC staff member who is responsible for preparing the individual data products.

During FY 2000, CDIAC published four new NDPs, one CDIAC publication, and one database under the auspices of DOE. CDIAC updated three NDPs and one database. CDIAC also added two new records to Trends Online (and updated five existing records).

3.1 New Products

  • Vegetation Response of CO2 and Climate, A Database of Herbaceous Vegetation Responses to Elevated Atmospheric CO2

    Contributed by Jones, M. H., and P. S. Curtis, Department of Evolution, Ecology, and Organismal Biology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio

    Prepared by Robert M. Cushman and Antoinette L. Brenkert, CDIAC

    NDP-073 (published: November 1999)

    (http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/epubs/ndp/ndp073/ndp073.html)

This database, which accompanies the database NDP-072, A Data Base of Woody Vegetation Responses to Elevated Atmospheric CO2, was compiled from the published literature for 121 independent CO2-enrichment studies and is used to support a meta-analysis of research results on the response by herbaceous vegetation to increased atmospheric CO2 levels.

Seventy-eight independent CO2-enrichment studies, covering 53 species and 26 response parameters, reported mean response, sample size, and variance of the response. An additional 43 studies, covering 25 species and six response parameters, did not report variances.

This database may also be used to explore the effects of environmental factors (e.g., nutrient levels, light intensity, temperature), stress treatments (e.g., drought, heat, ozone), and effects of experimental conditions (e.g., duration of CO2 exposure, pot size, type of CO2 exposure facility) on plant responses to elevated CO2 levels.

  • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Hespérides Cruise in the Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A5, July 14August 15, 1992)

    Contributed by Millero, F. J., S. Fiol, and D. M. Campbell, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, Florida; and G. Parrilla, Instituto Español de Oceanografía, Madrid, Spain

    Prepared by Alexander Kozyr and Linda J. Allison, CDIAC

    NDP-074 (published: June 2000)
    (http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/oceans/ndp_074/ndp074.html)

This data documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide (TCO2), total alkalinity (TALK), and pH at hydrographic stations during the R/V Hespérides oceanographic cruise in the Atlantic Ocean (Section A5). Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), the cruise began in Cadiz, Spain, on July 14, 1992, and ended in Miami, Florida, on August 15, 1992. Measurements made along WOCE Section A5 included conductivity, temperature, and depth (CTD) pressure; temperature; salinity; oxygen; bottle salinity; oxygen; phosphate; nitrate; nitrite; silicate; TCO2; TALK; and pH.

  • Carbon Dioxide Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V John V. Vickers Cruise in the Pacific Ocean (WOCE Section P13, NOAA CGC92 Cruise, August 4October 21, 1992)

    Contributed by Dickson, A. G., C. D. Keeling, and P. R. Guenther, Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO), University of California, San Diego, California, and J. L. Bullister, Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, NOAA, Seattle, Washington

    Prepared by Alexander Kozyr, CDIAC

    NDP-075 (published: December 2000)
    (http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/oceans/ndp_075/ndp075.html)

This data documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide (TCO2) and total alkalinity (TALK) at hydrographic stations during the R/V John V. Vickers oceanographic cruise in the Pacific Ocean (Section P13). Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Climate and Global Change Program, the cruise began in Los Angeles, California, on August 4, 1992, with a transit line (Leg 0) to Dutch Harbor, Alaska. On August 16, the ship departed Dutch Harbor on Leg 1 of WOCE section P13. On September 15, the R/V John V. Vickers arrived in Kwajalein, Marshall Islands, for emergency repairs, and after 11 days in port departed for Leg 2 of Section P13 on September 26. The cruise ended on October 21 in Noumea, New Caledonia. Measurements made along WOCE Section P13 included pressure, temperature, salinity [measured by a conductivity, temperature, and depth sensor (CTD)], bottle salinity, bottle oxygen, phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, silicate, chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-11, CFC-12), TCO2, and TALK.

  • Global Distribution of Total Inorganic Carbon and Total Alkalinity Below the Deepest Winter Mixed Layer Depths

Contributed by Goyet, C., and R. J. Healy, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, and J. P. Ryan, Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, Moss Landing, California

Prepared by Alexander Kozyr, CDIAC

NDP-076 (published: May 2000)
(http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/oceans/ndp_076/ndp076.html)

Modeling the global ocean-atmosphere carbon dioxide system is becoming increasingly important to greenhouse gas policy. These models require initialization with realistic three-dimensional (3-D) oceanic carbon fields. This report presents an approach to establishing these initial conditions from an extensive global database of ocean CO2 system measurements and well-developed interpolation methods. These methods are limited to waters below the deepest mixed layer. The data used for these interpolations include the recent high-quality data sets from the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS), and Ocean-Atmosphere Carbon Exchange Study (OACES) programs. Prior to analysis, all carbon data were adjusted to established reference material listed in http://www-mpl.ucsd.edu/people/adickson/CO2_QC/. The interpolation methodology employs correlation between CO2 system properties and other more widely measured properties: potential temperature, salinity, and apparent oxygen utilization. The correlations are computed for each profile, and the coefficients are interpolated to the 1E x 1E x 32 vertical-layer grid at a monthly temporal resolution. Finally, the gridded coefficients are applied to a global monthly climatology of ocean temperature, salinity, and oxygen to compute total CO2 (TCO2) and total alkalinity (TALK) for the 3-D grid.

This approach offers advantages over spin up of a single profile in defining spatial variation in CO2 system properties because it reduces initialization time and provides a more accurate carbon field. The results provide an unprecedented "view" of the global distribution of TALK and TCO2 in the ocean. These results as well as those from the monthly mixed layer depths can be used in diagnostic and prognostic global ocean models.

The interpolated data set includes seasonal TCO2 and TALK fields as well as the coefficients used to estimate these concentrations and the monthly mixed layer depths.

  • Comparison of the Carbon System Parameters at the Global CO2 Survey Crossover Locations in the North and South Pacific Ocean, 19901996

    Contributed by Feely, R. A., M. F. Lamb, and D. J. Greeley, NOAA, Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL), Seattle, Washington; and R. Wanninkhof, NOAA, Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, Miami, Florida

    Prepared by Linda Allison and Dana Griffith, CDIAC

ORNL/CDIAC-115

(published: December 1999)

(http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/oceans/pmel/pmel.html)

As a collaborative program to measure global ocean carbon inventories and provide estimates of the anthropogenic CO2 uptake by the oceans, NOAA and DOE have sponsored the collection of ocean carbon measurements as part of the WOCE OACES cruises. The cruises discussed here occurred in the North and South Pacific from 1990 through 1996. The carbon parameters from these 30 crossover locations have been compared to ensure that a consistent global data set emerges from the survey cruises. The results indicate that for dissolved inorganic carbon, fugacity of CO2, and pH, the agreements at most crossover locations are well within the design specifications for the global CO2 survey; whereas, in the case of total alkalinity, the agreement between crossover locations is not as close.

  • Atmospheric Methyl Chloride

Contributed by Khali, M. A. K., Department of Physics, Portland State University, Portland, Oregon; and R. A. Rasmussen, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Oregon Graduate Institute, Portland, Oregon

Prepared by Thomas A. Boden, CDIAC

(added: February 2000)
(http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/epubs/other/methylchl.html)

Monthly average concentrations of atmospheric methyl chloride from seven locations representing the polar, middle, and tropical latitudes, and both hemispheres are provided in this database. The seven primary sites include Pt. Barrow, Alaska; Cape Kumukahi and Mauna Loa, Hawaii; Cape Matatula, Samoa; Cape Grim, Tasmania; and the South Pole and Palmer Station, Antarctica. Concentration measurements from these seven sites cover a period of 16 years (1981–1997). Monthly data, including vertical distributions at 20 short-term sites from various latitudes, were also measured between 1987–1989.

Air samples were collected in stainless steel flasks, and methyl chloride concentrations were measured using an Electron Capture Gas Chromatograph. Concentrations are reported as mixing ratios in dry air. The concentrations are determined by using a set of calibration standards that are referenced against a primary standard that is also used to establish the absolute concentration. The primary standards were prepared by the investigators in the absence of an available standard from a centralized location.

These data are useful for: (1) global methyl chloride budget analyses, (2) determining the atmospheric distribution and trends of methyl chloride, and (3) estimating the total emissions at various latitudes.

3.2 Updated Products

 3.2.1 Atmospheric Trace Gases

  • Atmospheric CO2 ConcentrationsMauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii, 19581999

Contributed by Keeling, C. D., and T. P. Whorf, Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) at the University of California, San Diego, California 

Prepared by Thomas A. Boden, CDIAC

The Mauna Loa atmospheric CO2 measurements, which began in 1958, constitute the longest continuous record of atmospheric CO2 concentrations available in the world. The Mauna Loa site is considered one of the most favorable locations for measuring undisturbed air because possible local influences of vegetation or human activities on atmospheric CO2 concentrations are minimal, and any influences from volcanic vents may be excluded from the records. The methods and equipment used to obtain these measurements have remained essentially unchanged during the 40-year monitoring program.

The Mauna Loa record shows a 16.6% increase in the mean annual concentration, from 315.83 parts per million by volume (ppmv) of dry air in 1959 to 368.37 ppmv in 1999. The 2.9 ppmv increase in mean annual concentration from 1997 to 1998 represents the largest single yearly jump since the Mauna Loa record began in 1958; the 1998–1999 increase in mean annual concentration was 1.67 ppmv.

  • The ALE/GAGE/AGAGE Network

Contributed by Prinn, R., Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); D. Cunnold, F. Alyea, R. Wang, and D. Hartley, Georgia Institute of Technology; P. Fraser and L. Paul Steele, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO); R. Weiss, Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO); and P. Simmonds, International Science Consultants

Prepared by Thomas A. Boden, CDIAC

DB-001 (revised: August 2000)

(http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/ndps/alegage.html)

This network provides continuous high-frequency measurements of methane, nitrous oxide, three chlorofluorocarbons, methyl chloroform, chloroform, and carbon tetrachloride. This database supports analyses and monitoring related to both greenhouse gases and the Earth’s ozone layer. Data from 1978 through September 1999 are now available for Cape Grim, Tasmania; Point Matatula, American Samoa; Ragged Point, Barbados; Mace Head, Ireland; and Trinidad Head, California. Stations also previously existed at Cape Meares, Oregon, and Adrigole, Ireland. All Atmospheric Lifetime Experiment (ALE) and Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (GAGE) data have been recalculated according to the current Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) calibration standards, thus creating a unified ALE/GAGE/AGAGE data set based upon the same standards. The AGAGE database has been completely re-computed to introduce a new and improved pollution analysis scheme.

3.2.2 Climate

  • Annual and Seasonal Global Temperature Deviations in the Troposphere and Low Stratosphere, 19581998

Contributed by Angell, J. K., Air Resources Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Silver Springs, Maryland

Prepared by Dale P. Kaiser and Sonja B. Jones, CDIAC

NDP-008 (updated: October 1999)

(http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/ndps/ndp008.html)

Surface temperatures and thickness-derived temperatures from a global network of 63 radiosonde stations were used to estimate annual and seasonal temperature deviations (calculated relative to a 1958–1977 reference period mean) over the globe and several zonal regions from 1958 through 1998.

Most of the values are column-mean temperatures obtained from the differences in height between constant-pressure surfaces at individual radiosonde stations. The pressure-height data before 1980 were obtained from published values in Monthly Climatic Data for the World. Between 1980 and 1990, Angell used data from both the Climatic Data for the World and the Global Telecommunications System (GTS) Network received at the National Meteorological Center. Between 1990 and 1995, the data were obtained only from GTS, and since 1995, the data have been obtained from the National Center for Atmospheric Research files. These temperature deviations may be used to analyze long-term temperature trends for a layer of the atmosphere (i.e., surface, troposphere, tropopause, and low stratosphere), a region (i.e., polar, temperate, subtropical, and equatorial), a hemisphere, or the globe. 

3.2.3 Carbon Cycle

  • Global, Regional, and National CO2 Emission Estimates from Fossil Fuel Burning, Cement Production, and Gas Flaring: 17511997

Compiled by Marland, G., and T. A. Boden, CDIAC; and R. J. Andres, Institute of Northern Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Alaska-Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska

Prepared by Thomas A. Boden, CDIAC

NDP-030 (updated: August 2000)

(http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/ndps/ndp030.html)

Global, regional, and national annual estimates of CO2 emissions from fossil fuel burning, cement production, and gas flaring have been calculated through 1997, some as far back as 1751. These estimates, derived primarily from energy statistics published by the United Nations (UN), were calculated using the methods of Marland and Rotty (1984). Cement production estimates from the U.S. Department of Interior's Bureau of Mines were used to estimate CO2 emitted during cement production. Emissions from gas flaring were derived primarily from UN data but were supplemented with data from DOE’s Energy Information Administration (Rotty 1974) and with a few national estimates provided by G. Marland.


3.3 Trends Online

3.3.1 Atmospheric Trace Gas Concentrations

3.3.1.1 Carbon dioxide and carbon isotopes

  • Atmospheric CO2 Records from Sites in the SIO Air Sampling Network

Contributed by Keeling, C. D., and T. P. Whorf, Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO), University of California, San Diego, California

Prepared by Thomas A. Boden, CDIAC

(updated: September 2000)

(http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/trends/co2/sio-keel.htm)

Ambient atmospheric CO2 data from the Mauna Loa Observatory, Mauna Loa, Hawaii; Barrow, Alaska; Cape Matatula, American Samoa; and the South Pole have been updated though 1999. All digital data, figures, and documentation are available in Trends Online.

The ambient atmospheric CO2 measurements taken at the Mauna Loa Observatory since 1958 constitute the longest continuous record of atmospheric CO2 concentrations available in the world. The Mauna Loa site is considered one of the most favorable locations for measuring undisturbed air because the possible local influences of vegetation or human activities on atmospheric CO2 concentrations are minimal and any influences from volcanic vents may be excluded from the records. The methods and equipment used to obtain these measurements have remained essentially unchanged during the 40-plus years of the monitoring program.

Between 1959 and 1999, the Mauna Loa record shows a 16.6% rise in the mean annual concentration, increasing from 315.83 parts per million by volume (ppmv) of dry air to 368.37 ppmv. A 2.9-ppmv increase in mean annual concentration from 1997 to 1998 represents the largest single yearly jump since the Mauna Loa record began in 1958; the 1998–1999 increase in mean annual concentration was 1.67 ppmv. Since 1974, the annual average CO2 concentration at Barrow has risen from 332.60 ppmv to 369.68 ppmv in 1999 (constituting an annual increase of 1.4 ppmv). The Barrow record is screened to be indicative of maritime air masses and shows the large seasonal amplitude typical for high latitude northern sites. At Cape Matatula, the annual concentration of CO2 rose from 340.43 ppmv in 1982 to 367.02 ppmv in 1999 (displaying an average annual growth rate of ~1.5 ppmv). At the South Pole, the average annual CO2 concentration rose from 327.45 ppmv in 1973 to 365.69 ppmv in 1999 (constituting an annual increase of >1.4 ppmv). 

  • Atmospheric CO2 Records from Sites in the NOAA/CMDL Continuous Monitoring Network

Contributed by Thoning, K.W., and P. P. Tans, NOAA, Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado

Prepared by Thomas A. Boden, CDIAC

(updated: February 2000)

(http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/trends/co2/nocm.htm)

The atmospheric CO2 records from four sites in the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory (NOAA/CMDL) continuous monitoring network have been updated to include data through 1998. Based on this continuous CO2 record, since 1974 the annual average atmospheric CO2 concentration at Point Barrow, Alaska, has risen from 333.94 ppmv to 367.41 ppmv in 1998; at Mauna Loa, Hawaii, from 332.04 in 1976 to 366.49 ppmv in 1998; at Cape Matatula, American Samoa, from 331.45 in 1976 to 360.92 ppmv in 1996; and at the South Pole Observatory, from 329.33 in 1975 to 363.61 ppmv in 1998. These observations are considered representative of "clean" concentrations in the well-mixed troposphere, free from such confounding influences as vegetation or urban and industrial pollution. They quantify the increasing atmospheric concentrations of this most important greenhouse gas resulting from fossil-fuel combustion, land-use change, and cement production.

3.3.2 Greenhouse Gas Emissions

3.3.2.1 Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel CO2 consumption

  • Global, Regional, and National Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions

Compiled by Marland, G., T. A. Boden, CDIAC; and R. J. Andrews, University of North Dakota

Prepared by Thomas A. Boden, CDIAC

(updated: August 2000)

(http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/trends/emis/em_cont.htm)

CDIAC's estimates of global, regional, and national CO2 emissions from fossil-fuel combustion and cement production extend from 1751–1997. The 1997 global CO2 emissions estimate of 6601 million metric tons of carbon is the highest fossil-fuel emission estimate ever. The 1997 estimate represents a 1.3% increase over 1996, continuing a trend of modest growth since a 1991–1993 decline in global CO2 emissions. The Trends Online format provides a concise summary of the methodology, time-series graphics, and tabular data in an easily downloadable format. Special listings are also provided for the top 20 emitting countries and for countries ranked by total and per capita emissions. 

3.3.2.2 Carbon flux from land-cover change

  • Carbon Flux to the Atmosphere from Land-use Changes

Contributed by Houghton, R. A. and J. L. Hackler, The Woods Hole Research Center, Woods Hole, Massachusetts

Prepared by Robert M. Cushman, CDIAC

(published: September 2000)

(http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/trends/landuse/houghton/houghton.html)

This inaugural dataset in the Carbon Flux from Land-Cover Change section, "Carbon Flux to the Atmosphere from Land-Use Changes," provides annual estimates, from 1850 through 1990, of net fluxes caused by deliberate changes in land use (e.g., clearing of forests for agriculture, harvest of wood for fuel or timber) in nine regions of the world. The estimated global total net flux of carbon from changes in land use increased from nearly 400 Tg C (1 teragram = 1012 grams) in 1850 to 2200 Tg C or 2.2 Pg C (1 petagram = 1,000 Tg = 1015 grams) in 1989 and then decreased slightly to 2100 Tg C or 2.1 Pg C in 1990. The global net flux during the period 1850–1990 was 120 Pg C. During this period, the greatest regional flux was from South and Southeast Asia (39 Pg C), while the smallest regional flux was from North Africa and the Middle East (3 Pg C). For the year 1990, the global total net flux was estimated to be 2.1 Pg carbon. For comparison, the estimated 1990 carbon flux to the atmosphere from fossil-fuel combustion and cement production has been estimated at 6.1 Pg carbon (http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/trends/emis/tre_glob.htm). Interestingly, North America was actually a carbon SINK from the 1960s until the mid-1980s, and Europe represented a sink throughout the 1980s.

3.3.3 Climate

3.3.3.1 Temperature

  • Historical Isotopic Temperature Record from the Vostok Ice Core

Contributed by Petit, J. R., D. Raynaud, and C. Lorius, Laboratoire de Glaciogie et Géophysique de l’Environnement, CNRS, Saint Martin d’Hères Cedex, France

Prepared by Linda Allison, CDIAC

(published: January 2000)

(http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/trends/temp/vostok/jouz_tem.htm)

Because isotopic fractions of oxygen-18 (18O) and deuterium (2H or D) in snowfall are temperature-dependent and a strong spatial correlation exists between the annual mean temperature and the mean isotopic ratio (18O/16O or D) of precipitation, it is possible to derive ice-core climate records from the isotopic composition. This record was based on the 3623-m ice core drilled at the Vostok station in central east Antarctica, the deepest ice core ever recovered. The resulting core allowed the ice core record of climate properties at Vostok to be extended to 420,000 years BP. 

From the extended Vostok record, Petit et al. concluded that present-day atmospheric burdens of carbon dioxide and methane seem to have been unprecedented during the past 420,000 years. Although the third and fourth climate cycles evident in the Vostok record are of shorter duration than the first two cycles, all four climate cycles show a similar sequence of a warm interglacial, followed by colder glacial events, and ending with a rapid return to an interglacial period. Minimum temperatures are within 1E C for the four climate cycles. The overall amplitude of the glacial-interglacial temperature change is ~8E C for the temperature above the inversion level and ~12EC for surface temperatures.

  • Global and Hemispheric Temperature Anomalies—Land and Marine Instrumental Records

Contributed by Jones, P. D., T. J. Osborn, and K. R. Briffa, University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom, and D. E. Parker, Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, Bracknell, United Kingdom 

Prepared by Dale P. Kaiser, CDIAC

(updated: June 2000)

(http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/trends/temp/jonescru/jones.html)

The temperature records in this database have been updated through 1999. These data were corrected for nonclimatic factors, such as location shifts and/or instrument changes. The resulting data set has been used extensively in various Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports, and the global-mean temperature changes evident in the record have been interpreted in terms of anthropogenic forcing influences and natural variability. Trends in annual mean temperature anomalies for the globe show relatively stable temperatures from the beginning of the record (1856) through about 1910, with relatively rapid and steady warming through the early 1940s, followed by another period of relatively stable temperatures through the mid-1970s, then another rapid rise similar to that earlier in the century. The year 1998 is the warmest year of the record; 1999 is the fifth warmest. The seven warmest years of the global record have all occurred since 1990. These are, in descending order, 1998, 1997, 1995, 1990, 1999, 1991, and 1994.

  • Global, Hemispheric, and Zonal Temperature Deviations Derived from Radiosonde Records

Contributed by Angell, J. K., Air Resources Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Silver Springs, Maryland, USA

Prepared by Sonja B. Jones and Dale P. Kaiser, CDIAC

 (updated: October 1999)

(http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/trends/temp/angell/angell.html)

Data from a global network of 63 radiosonde stations were used to estimate global, hemispheric, and zonal annual and seasonal temperature variations from 1958 through 1998. These estimates are categorized vertically (for the near-surface, troposphere, tropopause, low stratosphere, and the surface up to 100 mb) and horizontally (for the globe, the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, and the North and South Polar, North and South Temperate, North and South Subtropical, Tropical, and Equatorial latitudinal zones). 

The data were obtained from values published in Monthly Climatic Data for the World and Climatic Data for the World, from the Global Telecommunications System (GTS) Network, and from National Center for Atmospheric Research files. Based on this network, Angell reported that during 1958–1998 the global, near-surface air temperature warmed by 0.14EC/decade and the troposphere layer warmed by 0.10EC/decade. The tropopause cooled outside the tropics but warmed slightly in the tropics. The low-stratospheric layer cooled by about 0.4EC/decade in the tropics and extra tropics. At both the surface and in the troposphere, 1998 was the warmest year of the 41-year record, but when the influence of the powerful El Niño of 1997–1998 on these temperatures is taken into account, 1990 remains the warmest year of the record.

3.4. Newsletters, Reports, and Additional Online Publications

  • CDIAC Communications. Issue Number 27, Summer 2000

Edited by Sonja Jones and Karen Gibson, CDIAC

(http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/newsletr/summer00/ccs00.htm)

CDIAC published the Summer 2000 issue (#27) of CDIAC’s newsletter "Communications". This issue featured a lead story on "Monitoring and Verifying Changes of Organic Carbon in Soil" and described global change databases and other publications released by CDIAC.

  • Catalog of Databases and Reports

Compiled by Marvel Burtis, CDIAC

(ORNL/CDIAC-34)

(http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/epubs/catalog/index.htm)

CDIAC’s catalog is a compilation of the entire list of DOE-sponsored research reports, CDIAC reports, NDPs, and databases distributed by CDIAC.

  • CDIAC Publications, Presentations, and Awards

Prepared by Robert M. Cushman, CDIAC

ORNL/CDIAC-101 (updated: January 2000)

(http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/epubs/cdiac/cdiac101/cdiac101.htm)

This bibliography (available online only) lists CDIAC’s journal articles, book and proceedings chapters, numeric data packages and online databases, other ORNL and DOE reports published by CDIAC, presentations by CDIAC staff, and awards presented to CDIAC since its establishment in 1982.

  • Fiscal Year 1999 Annual Report

Contributed by Cushman, R. M., Thomas A. Boden, Les A. Hook, Sonja B. Jones, Dale P. Kaiser, and Tommy Nelson, CDIAC 

Prepared by Marvel D. Burtis, CDIAC

ORNL/CDIAC-126 (published: March 2000)

(http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/epubs/cdiac/cdiac126/annualrp99.htm)

The report documents highlights from the fiscal year (new data products and other publications); provides information on CDIAC Focus Areas; provides statistics, such as the number of requests for global change data and information from CDIAC and citations in the published literature of data obtained from CDIAC; alerts users to new data products that CDIAC hopes to release in FY 2000; lists awards received by CDIAC and publications and presentations of its staff; and lists the many organizations with which CDIAC has collaborated to produce the data and information products it released in FY 1999.

  • Bibliography on CO2 Effects on Vegetation and Ecosystems: 19901999 Literature

Complied by Jones, M. H., and Peter S. Curtis, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio

Prepared by Robert M. Cushman, CDIAC

ORNL/CDIAC-129 (revised: July 2000)

(http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/epubs/cdiac/cdiac129/cdiac129.html)

This database provides complete bibliographic citations (plus abstracts and keywords, when available) for more than 2,700 references published between 1990 and 1999 on the direct effects of elevated atmospheric concentrations of CO2 on vegetation, ecosystems, their components and interactions. This bibliography is an update to Direct Effects of Atmospheric CO2 Enrichment on Plants and Ecosystems: An Updated Bibliographic Data Base (ORNL/CDIAC-70), edited by Boyd R. Strain and Jennifer D. Cure, which covered literature from 1980 to 1994. This bibliography was developed to support The Ohio State University’s (OSU) Carbon Dioxide MetaAnalysis Project (CO2 MAP), but was designed to be useful for a wide variety of purposes related to the effects of elevated CO2 on vegetation and ecosystems.

The data base is available as a Papyrus™ (a registered trademark of Research Software Design, 2718 SW Kelly St., Suite 181, Portland, OR 97201 USA) bibliographic files. In addition, an alphabetical (by author) listing of the contents of the data base are available in WordPerfect® (a registered trademark of the Corel Corporation, 1600 Carling Ave., Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1Z 8R7), ascii, and Adobe® Acrobat® software in pdf format. A keyword index may be used to locate specific citations of interest.

  • Graduate Student Theses Supported by DOE’s Environmental Sciences Division:  FY 2000 Update

Compiled by Cushman, R. M., CDIAC, A. Harrison, and Katie Stevens, National Institute for Global Environmental Change National Office, University of California, Davis 

(updated: September 2000)

(http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/epubs/cdiac/cdiac130/cdiac130.htm)

This update is an addendum to the 1995 report, Graduate Student Theses Supported by DOE’s Environmental Sciences Division, providing complete bibliographic citations, abstracts, and keywords for 70 doctoral and masters’ theses published between 1994 and 2000, supported fully or partly by DOE’s Environmental Sciences Division in the following areas: Atmospheric Chemistry; Marine Transport; Carbon, Climate, and Vegetation; Computer Hardware, Advanced Mathematics, and Model Physics (CHAMMP); Coastal Margins; and National Institute for Global Environmental Change (NIGEC). Information on the major professor, department, principal investigator, and program area is given for each abstract.


3.5 What’s Coming in FY 2001

CDIAC is currently working on the following new and existing data and information products for FY 2001. Please note that many have already been completed.

3.5.1 New and Updated Information Products

3.5.1.1 Land use and ecosystems

  • Carbon Flux to the Atmosphere from Land-use Changes 1850 to 1990

Contributed by Houghton, R. A., and J. L. Hackler, The Woods Hole Research Center, Woods Hole, Massachusetts

Prepared by Robert M. Cushman, CDIAC

NDP-050/R1 (date completed: February 2001)

(http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/epubs/ndp/ndp050/ndp050.html)

This updated NDP replaces the version published by CDIAC in 1995 and includes the data corresponding to Houghton’s 1999 paper "The Annual Net Flux of Carbon to the Atmosphere From Changes in Land Use 1850–1990" in the journal Tellus (volume 51B, pages 298–313). The database consists of annual estimates of the net flux of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere resulting from deliberate changes in land cover and land use. The data are provided on a year-by-year basis for nine regions (North America, South and Central America, Europe, North Africa and the Middle East, Tropical Africa, the Former Soviet Union, China, South and Southeast Asia, and the Pacific Developed Region); global totals are also given. The global net flux during the period 1850 to 1990 was 124 Pg of carbon. During this period, the greatest regional flux was from South and Southeast Asia (39 Pg of carbon), while the smallest regional flux was from North Africa and the Middle East (3 Pg of carbon). For the year 1990, the global total net flux was estimated to be 2.1 Pg of carbon. 

3.5.1.2 Oceanographic trace gases

  • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Knorr Cruises 138-3, -4, and -5 in the South Pacific Ocean (WOCE Sections P6E, P6C, and P6W, May 2 July 30, 1992)

Contributed by Johnson, K. M., Brookhaven National Laboratory, New York; M. Haines, R. M. Key, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey; C. Neill; B. Tilbrook, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Australia; R. Wilke, and D. W. R. Wallace, Brookhaven National Laboratory, New York

This data documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide (TCO2) and partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) at hydrographic stations during the R/V Knorr oceanographic cruises 138-3, -4, and -5 in the South Pacific Ocean (Section P6). The work was divided into three legs designated as P6E, P6C, and P6W which correspond to cruises 138-3, -4, and -5, respectively. Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), the P6 section began in Valparaiso, Chile, on May 2, 1992, and ended 81 days later in Sydney, Australia, on July 30, 1992. Measurements made along WOCE Section P6 included atmospheric pressure, temperature, salinity [measured by a conductivity, temperature, and depth sensor (CTD)], bottle salinity, bottle oxygen, silicate, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, radiocarbon (14C), TCO2, and pCO2.

3.5.1.3 Climate

  • Annual and Seasonal Global Temperature Deviations in the Troposphere and Low Stratosphere, 19581999

Contributed by Angell, J. K., Air Resources Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Silver Springs, Maryland

Prepared by Dale P. Kaiser and Sonja B. Jones, CDIAC

NDP-008 (completed: November 2000)

(http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/ndps/ndp008.html)

This updated numeric data package, which provides surface temperatures and thickness-derived temperatures from a 63-station, globally distributed radiosonde network, has been used to estimate global, hemispheric, and zonal annual and seasonal temperature deviations from 1958 through 1999. Most of the temperature values used were column-mean temperatures, obtained from the differences in height (thickness) between constant-pressure surfaces at individual radiosonde stations. The data are evaluated as deviations from the mean based on the interval 1958–1977 and pertain to the surface and the following atmospheric layers: troposphere (850–300 mb), tropopause (300–100 mb), low stratosphere (100–50 and 100–30 mb), and from the surface up to 100 mb. Individual data sets containing the above measurements are provided for the globe, the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, and the following latitudinal zones: North Polar (60E–90EN) and South Polar (60E–90ES); North Temperate (30E–60EN) and South Temperate (30E–60ES); North Subtropical (10E–30EN) and South Subtropical (10E–30ES); Tropical (30EN–30ES); and Equatorial (10EN–10ES).

  • A Databank of Antarctic Surface Temperature and Pressure Data

Contributed by Jones, P. D., and P. A. Reid, Climatic Research Unit, University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom

This database will offer monthly mean surface temperature and mean sea level pressure data from twenty-nine meteorological stations within the Antarctic region. The first version of this database, compiled at the Climatic Research Unit, extended through 1988, and was originally made available by CDIAC in 1989 as NDP-032. This update to NDP-032 includes data through early 1999 for most stations (through 2000 for a few) and also includes all available mean monthly maximum and minimum temperature data. For many stations this means that more than 40 years of data are now available, enough for many of the trends associated with recent warming to be more thoroughly examined. Much of the original version of this dataset was obtained from the World Weather Records (WWR) volumes (1951–1970), Monthly Climatic Data for the World (since 1961), and several other sources. Updating the station surface data involved requesting data from countries that have weather stations on Antarctica. Of particular importance within this study are the additional data obtained from Australia, Britain, and New Zealand.

3.5.2 Trends Online Update

CDIAC is continually expanding Trends Online with additions and updates. Coming (or completed) in FY 2001:

Remember to check the "New" page on our Web site (http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/new/new.html) for announcements of the latest CDIAC data and information products.


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CDIACCarbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 
U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, TN  USA 
Tel:  (865) 574-0390 FAX:  (865) 574-2232      Internet:  cdiac@ornl.gov


Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center  ORNL Environmental Sciences Division  Oak Ridge National Laboratory  United States Department of Energy