Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and
World Data CenterA for Atmospheric Trace Gases

Robert M. Cushman, Thomas A. Boden, Sonja B. Jones, Dale P. Kaiser, and Tommy R. Nelson
Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center

Electronic Publishing by Marvel D. Burtis

Environmental Sciences Division
Publication No. 4625

Date Published: February 1997

Prepared for the
Global Change Research Program
Environmental Sciences Division
Office of Health and Environmental Research
U.S. Department of Energy
Budget Activity Number KP 12 04 01 0

Prepared by the
Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center
OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY
Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6335
managed by
LOCKHEED MARTIN ENERGY RESEARCH CORP.
for the
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY
under contract DE-AC05-96OR22464


Contents

Introduction
Highlights
Statistics
What's Coming in 1997
Additional CDIAC Publications, Presentations, and Awards
CDIAC Collaborations
Organization and Staff
Acronyms and Other Abbreviations



Introduction

Fiscal year 1996 was especially productive for the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). If you look over the "Highlights" section in this report, you ll notice a large number of new and updated data and information products that, I hope, will be useful to you.

During this past year, CDIAC witnessed a number of staff changes. Linda Allison and Antoinette Brenkert were welcomed into the Global Change Data group. The group is now led by Dale Kaiser, so that Tom Boden can handle our atmospheric databases. These moves strengthen our ability to produce the quality-assured and documented data products that are needed by the global-change community. Karen Gibson joined the User Services group, helping provide data and information products to our user community as efficiently and responsively as possible. Forrest Hoffman joined the Computing Systems group, taking on responsibility for enhancing the World Wide Web site that CDIAC maintains for the multiagency U.S. Global Change Data and Information System. At the end of the fiscal year 1996, Rich Daniels left us for a position with the State of Washington's Department of Ecology. We will miss his expertise with geographic information systems and issues related to land-use change and coastal vulnerability to rising sea level.

From our "Statistics" section, you ll see that, while the total number of requests from users continued to rise, the increase occurred primarily through our Web site. Currently we are making every possible effort to offer our products through the Web. We are striving to publish our numeric data packages, as well as such publications as our newsletter CDIAC Communications, on-line as soon as the printed versions are released, or possibly sooner. We have been assisted in our on-line efforts by Julie Watts, who helped put some of our classic printed reports (e.g., our glossaries and Trends) on the Web. I can assure you that we're pedaling as fast as we can, while continuing to produce new data and information products that researchers and policymakers need.

I invite you to look through this report and see what we have been doing to serve the global-change community, as well as what we plan for fiscal year 1997.



Robert M. Cushman
Director, CDIAC


Highlights

Selected CDIAC Publications

During the fiscal year (FY) 1996, the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) published eight numeric data packages (NDPs) under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The printed reports are available from CDIAC on request. The data and descriptive files are available via the Internet from CDIAC's anonymous file transfer protocol (FTP) area (cdiac.esd.ornl.gov) and from CDIAC's World Wide Web site, as well as on a variety of magnetic media.

In addition, CDIAC published the following four on-line databases, which are available in electronic form from CDIAC's anonymous FTP area (cdiac.esd.ornl.gov) and the CDIAC World Wide Web site (http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov) as well as on a variety of magnetic media that can be ordered from CDIAC.

CDIAC also published the following:

Two issues in the DOE Research Summary series:


Two issues of the newsletter CDIAC Communications, which are available on-line from CDIAC's World Wide Web home page, and in print on request.

On behalf of DOE, CDIAC produced a brochure for the Global Change Data and Information System (GCDIS), whose purpose is to manage and archive data and information resulting from the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP). The brochure describes both the USGCRP and GCDIS, listing the types of information available from GCDIS and potential users of the information. It names the GCDIS participating agencies and provides information about how to access the GCDIS home page, the GCDIS Gopher, the Global Change Master Directory, the USGCRP office, and the U.S. Global Change Research Information Office.


Statistics

Fiscal Year (FY) 1996

CDIAC's Most Requested World Wide Web Documents




A. Trends: A Compendium of Data on Global Change

B. NDP-019/R3, United Historical Climatology Network (U.S. HCN)

C. NDP-001/R6, Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii, 19581995

D. DB1001/R2, The ALE/GAGE/AGAGE Network

E. NDP-051, Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Meteor Cruise 15/3 in the South Atlantic Ocean

F. NDP-030/R7, Estimates of Global, Regional, and National Annual CO2 Emissions from Fossil-Fuel Burning, Hydraulic Cement Production, and Gas Flaring: 19501994

G. NDP-041, The Global Historical Climatology Network: Long-Term Monthly Temperature, Precipitation, Sea Level Pressure, and Station Pressure Data

H. NDP-011, Global Paleoclimatic Data for 6000 Yr B.P.

I. NDP-005/R3, Atmospheric CO2 ConcentrationsThe NOAA/GMCC Flask Sampling Network

J. NDP-050, Continental Scale Estimates of the Biotic Carbon Flux from Land Cover Change: 1850 to 1980



Total of 92,832 requests for FY 1985 through FY 1996!




Selected CDIAC Citations

Data from CDIAC publications were cited in a number of journal articles, magazine articles, and newsletters. The following publications are representative of works that have been cited.

NDP-019/R3, United States Historical Climatology Network (U.S. HCN),

NDP-030/R6, Estimates of Global, Regional, and National Annual CO2 Emissions from Fossil-Fuel Burning, Hydraulic Cement Production, and Gas Flaring: 19501992

NDP-040, Daily Temperature and Precipitation Data for 223 USSR Stations

NDP-050, Continental Scale Estimates of the Biotic Carbon Flux from Land Cover Change: 1850 to 1980

ORNL/CDIAC-65, Trends '93: A Compendium of Data on Global Change

DOE/NBB-0091T (TR055), Climate Data Bases of the People's Republic of China, 18411988



What's Coming in FY 1997

CDIAC is working on the following new or updated NDPs and hopes to have them available (both in printed format and on-line) in FY 1997:

New NDPs

NDP-043C
A Coastal Hazards Data Base for the U.S. West Coast (Contributors: T. W. Beaty, ORNL; V. Gornitz, Goddard Institute for Space Studies. This is the third and last of a series of NDPs that document the coastal hazards database developed by CDIAC in cooperation with Vivien Gornitz. The documentation of this NDP is currently undergoing final editing.

NDP-057
Carbon-14 Measurements in Atmospheric CO2 from Northern and Southern Hemisphere Sites, 19621993 (Contributors: R. Nydal and K. Lövseth, the Norwegian Institute of Technology). This database was completed in early FY 1997 and provides 14C measurements from Dakar, Senegal; Debre Zeit, Ethiopia; Fruholmen, Gråkallen, Kapp Linné, Lindesnes, and Vassfjellet, Norway; Fianarantsoa, Madagascar; Izaña and Mas Palomas, Canary Islands; Rehovot, Israel; Santiago de Compostela, Spain; and N'Djamena, Chad. This database represents the most geographically extensive atmospheric 14C data set available. Documentation was published in November 1996.

NDP-058
Geographic Patterns of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil-Fuel Burning, Hydraulic Cement Production, and Gas Flaring on a One Degree by One Degree Grid Cell Basis: 1950 to 1990 (Contributors: R. Andres, University of Alaska-Fairbanks, and G. Marland, ORNL; I. Fung, University of Victoria; and E. Matthews, Goddard Institute for Space Studies). The data have been assembled in connection with the Global Emissions Inventory Activity, a component of International Global Atmospheric Chemistry/International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme. Country-level CO2 emissions (NDP-030/R6) for 1950, 1960, 1970, 1980, and 1990 have been distributed on a 1° × 1° latitude and longitude grid within countries using a 1° matrix of population data from the Goddard Institute for Space Studies. The documentation of this NDP is currently undergoing final editing.

NDP-059
Daily Snow Depth Measurements from 195 Stations in the United States [Contributors: D. R. Easterling, P. Jamason, D. P. Bowman, P. Y. Hughes, and E. H. Mason, National Climatic Data Center (NCDC)]. This NDP will contain daily snow depth measurements for 195 National Weather Service first-order climatological stations in the United States. The data were assembled and made available by the NCDC. The 195 stations encompass 388 unique sampling locations in 48 of the 50 states; no observations from Hawaii or Delaware are included in the database. The earliest observations date back to 1893, and data for many stations extend through 1992. This NDP was published in March 1997.

NDP-060
Carbon Dioxide Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Thomas Washington Cruise TUNES-3 in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean (WOCE section P16C) (Contributors: C. Goyet, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, and P. R. Guenther, C. D. Keeling, and L. D. Talley, Scripps Institution of Oceanography). This data documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to obtain total CO2 (TCO2), total alkalinity (TALK), hydrographic, and chemical data during the Research Vessel Thomas Washington Expedition TUNES-3 in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean (Section P16C). Documentation was published in December 1996.

NDP-061
Effects of CO2 and Nitrogen Fertilization on Vegetation Nutrient Content in Juvenile Ponderosa Pine (Contributors: D. W. Johnson, J. T. Ball, and R. F. Walker, Desert Research Institute and University of Nevada). This NDP presents measured values of plant growth and nutrient (nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, potassium, calcium, magnesium, boron, copper, iron, manganese, and zinc) concentration and content from a study of the effects of CO2 and nitrogen fertilization on ponderosa pine conducted in open-top chambers in Placerville, California.

NDP-062
Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Thomas Washington Cruise TUNES-1 in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean (WOCE Section P17C) (Contributors: Catherine Goyet et al., Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution). This NDP will discuss the procedure and methods used to obtain total CO2 (TCO2), total alkalinity (TALK), and hydrographic and chemical data during the Research Vessel Thomas Washington Expedition TUNES-1 in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean (Section P17C). The cruise began in San Diego, California, on May 31, 1991, and finished in Papeete, Tahiti, on July 11, 1991.

NDP-063
Investigation of the Carbon Dioxide Along the WOCE Section S4P in the Pacific Sector of the Southern Ocean February April 1992 (Contributors: D. W. Chipman et al., Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory; and M. K. Koshlyakov, Shirshov Institute of Oceanography). This NDP will summarize the results of CO2 and associated hydrographic measurements made along the WOCE S4P section located near 67° S between 73° W and 172° E in the Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean. The expedition was carried out aboard the Russian Research Vessel Akademik Ioffe from period February 14 through April 6, 1992.

NDP-XX
Atmospheric and Sea Surface Underway Measurements of Partial Pressure of CO2 (pCO2) in the Indian Ocean During WOCE Cruises 19941996 (Contributors: Chris Sabine et al., Princeton University). This NDP will discuss the procedure and methods used to obtain underway pCO2 data on 9 WOCE cruises conducted aboard the R/V Knorr in the Indian Ocean during 19941996.

NDP-XX
Tropical Southeast Asia: Land Cover and Biomass-Carbon Estimates for 1980 (Contributors: S. Brown, A. Prasad, and D. Liu, University of Illinois, and Louis Iverson, U.S. Forest Service). This is the fourth database to be published by CDIAC concerning carbon fluxes to the atmosphere from tropical land-use changes. The database consists of estimates of geographically referenced carbon densities of forest soils and vegetation in tropical Asia. The vegetation carbon densities are based on potential carbon estimates, which are derived from climatic, edaphic and geomorphic indices and vegetation and are subsequently modified on the basis of population densities, climate, and vegetation data. The soil organic carbon estimates are calculated from pedon data for tropical forests and mapped to a texture/climate map for all of tropical Asia.


Updated NDPs

New Databases

We also hope to publish the following databases in the CDIAC DB series on-line during FY 1997:


Updated Databases

Trends Update

Although CDIAC probably will not print a hard-copy version of Trends during FY 1997, the updated CO2 chapter is available on-line, and we hope to publish the following chapters on-line soon:

Temperature (updated). This on-line version of the Trends temperature chapter will contain updates (often through 1995 or 1996) of most of the historical temperature records contained in Trends `93. This chapter and those described below will contain the full suite of information (text descriptions, maps, graphical time series, tabular time series, references, etc.) presented previously in hard copy form. One likely addition will be a time series of temperatures dating back to the early 1900s from a network of South Pacific stations (provided by J. Salinger, National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, Auckland, New Zealand).

Precipitation (updated). This on-line version of the Trends precipitation chapter will contain updates (often through 1995 or 1996) of most of the historical precipitation records contained in Trends '93, plus at least two (probably more) additional time series: monthly and annual South Pacific precipitation dating back to the early 1900s (provided by J. Salinger, National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research) and gridded, monthly estimates (1987present) of global precipitation derived from the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager aboard the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program satellites.

Methane. This on-line version of the Trends methane chapter will contain updates (often through 1995 or 1996) of most of the historical records contained in Trends ,93, plus at least four new atmospheric records. These new records include a new ice core record from Antarctica (contributed by D. M. Etheridge), in situ records from Alert, Northwest Territories, Canada (contributed by D. E. J. Worthy) and Cape Grim, Tasmania (contributed by L. P. Steele), and isotopic 13C records from around the world (contributed by C. M. Stevens).

Other Trace Gases. This on-line version of the Trends Other trace gases chapter will contain updates (often through 1995 or 1996) of most of the historical records contained in Trends ,93, plus at least six new atmospheric and emission records. These new records include a new ice core record from Antarctica (provided by D. M. Etheridge), new halocarbon species records from Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory (provided by S. A. Montzka), AGAGE records (provided by R. Prinn et al.), CFC-11 and CFC-12 release estimates from Alternatiave Fluorocarbons Environmental Acceptability Study, and in situ records from Alert, Northwest Territories, Canada (provided by D. E. J. Worthy) and Cape Grim, Tasmania (provided by P. J. Fraser).

We also plan to have new issues of our newsletter, CDIAC Communications, and the final issue in the DOE Research Summary series available on-line during FY 1997. Look for these on the CDIAC home page or request printed copies if you prefer them and are not already on our mailing list. Also look for enhancements in both the appearance and the functionality of the CDIAC and GCDIS home pages.



Publications, Presentations, and Awards

Publications

Andres, R. J., G. Marland, T. Boden, and S. Bischof. 1996. Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cement manufacture 17511991; and an estimate of their isotopic composition and latitudinal distribution. In T. Wigley and D. Schimel (eds.), Global Change Institute, Aspen, Colorado. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K. (in press).

Boden, T. A., G. Marland, and R. J. Andres. 1996. CO2 emission calculations and trends. pp. 1834. In Proceedings of the 1995 Symposium on Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Mitigation Research, June 2729, 1995. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.

Cushman, R. M., T. A. Boden, S. B. Jones, T. R. Nelson, and F. W. Stoss. 1996. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data CenterA for Atmospheric Trace Gases: Fiscal year 1995 annual report. ORNL/CDIAC-89. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tenn.

Presentations

Boden, T. A. 1995. "The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center's Ocean-related Data Management Activities." Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission Data Subpanel Meeting on pCO2. Paris, France, November.

Boden, T. A. 1996. "Trends in Atmospheric Trace Gases and Related Species." Montana Consortium Lecture Series, Oak Ridge, Tenn., March.

Boden, T. A. 1996. "Status Report on CDIAC Data Management Activities in Support of the DOE Ocean CO2 Survey." 13th DOE CO2 Survey Science Team Meeting, Gaithersburg, Maryland, August.

Boden, T. A. 1996. "Oceanographic Data Activities of the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data CenterA for Atmospheric Traces Gases." Invited lecture, Tianjin, People's Republic of China, September.

Boden, T. A. 1996. "Global, Regional, and National Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil-Fuel Consumption and Cement Production with Special Emphasis on Chinese Emissions." Invited Lecture, Tianjin, People's Republic of China, September.

Boden, T. A., and P. Kanciruk. 1995. "Advancing Technology and Data Center Operations." All World Data Center Conference, Wageningen, The Netherlands, October.

Brenkert, A. L. 1996. "Introducing CDIAC to the AmeriFlux Network." AmeriFlux Network Conference, St. Louis, Mo., October 2930.

Cushman, R. M. 1995. "Greenhouse Gases: Sources and Mitigation." Plant and Soil Science Lecture, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tenn., November.

Cushman, R. M. 1996. "The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center." NIGEC Interregional Climate Change Conference, Tuscaloosa, Ala., May.

Cushman, R. M. 1996. "Establishing Priorities for Reducing Greenhouse-Gas Emissions." 89th Annual Meeting and Exhibition, Air and Waste Management Association, Nashville, Tenn., June.

Cushman, R. M. 1996. "Data Support for Integrated Assessment Research." Energy Modeling Forum, Snowmass, Colo., July.

Kaiser, D. P. 1996. "Changes in Monthly Mean Cloud Amount over China: A Closer Look." The Eighth Meeting on Collaborative Research between the People's Republic of China Academia Sinica and the U.S. Department of Energy on CO2-Induced Climate Change, Beijing, China, August 1214, 1996; The Second Chinese Meteorological Administration/U.S. Department of Energy Science Team Meeting, Beijing, China, August 1517.

Marland, G., and T. A. Boden. 1996. "CO2 Emissions: Where We Are and How We Got There." U.S. Global Change Research Program, U.S. Global Change Research Program Seminar Series, Washington, D.C., September 16.

Awards

CDIAC Communications won a Merit Award for Newsletters in the 1995 Technical Publications and Art Competition sponsored by the East Tennessee Chapter of the Society for Technical Communication. The award was conferred in February 1996.

The DOE Research Summary won an Achievement Award for Newsletters in the same competition.

CDIAC's World Wide Web site was selected as a "3-Star Magellan" site. This designation was based on The McKinley Group's review of the site with regard to the following factors: "Depth: Is it comprehensive and up-to-date? Ease of exploration: Is it well-organized and easy to navigate? Net appeal: Is it innovative? Does it appeal to the eye or the ear? Is it hot, hip, or cool? Is it thought-provoking?" The CDIAC site received three out of a possible four stars. The McKinley Group operates the Magellan Internet directory of 1.5 million sites. The star rating appears on the list of "hits" that a user receives in response to a search of the Magellan directory.


CDIAC Collaborations

The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center realizes that it would not be possible to produce global-change data and information products without the generosity and cooperation of researchers at institutions throughout the United States and around the world. In this annual report, we have noted the collaborating individuals and institutions for each product. Below are listed the many institutions that have collaborated with CDIAC in the publication of the databases and other information products described in this report.

Brookhaven National Laboratory
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Australia
Connecticut College
Environmental Protection Agency
Global Emissions Inventory Centre, Canada
Institut für Ostseeforschung, Germany
Institut für Meereskunde, Germany
Iowa State University
Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
NASA Ames Research Center
NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies
NOAA Climate Monitoring and Diagnostic Laboratory
NOAA National Climatic Data Center
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
Research Institute of Hydrometeorological Information, Russia
University of Alaska, Fairbanks
University of Arizona
University of Colorado
University of Florida
University of Illinois
University of Washington
Utah Bureau of Air Quality
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution



Organization and Staff








CDIAC Staff in FY 1995




Staff


Phone Number
(Area Code 423)

E-mail
(@ornl.gov; unless
stated otherwise)



Title

Staff Office

574-0390

cdiac


Linda J. Allison576-8449ljaNumeric data analyst
Thomas A. Boden241-4842 tabDirector, WDCA for Atmospheric Trace Gases; ecologist and task leader, Data Systems
Antoinette L. Brenkert574-7322aztEcologist
Marvel D. Burtis241-4843 um6Editorial Assistant
Robert M. Cushman574-4791 rmaDirector, CDIAC
Richard C. Danielsa974-8297r3dGeographic Information Systems Specialist
Karen N. Gibson241-4854 gnkUser Services Assistant
Dana C. Griffith574-0390 xrqSecretary
Forrest M. Hoffman576-7680 hofWorld Wide Web specialist
Sonja B. Jones574-3645 cdpTask Leader, User Services
Dale P. Kaiser241-4849d9kMeteorologist
Alexander V. Kozyra974-8408 alex@alex.esd.ornl.govOceanographer
Gregg Marland241-4850gumSenior Scientist
Tommy R. Nelsonb574-0769trnTask Leader, Computer Systems
Frederick M. O'Harac482-1447ffoEditor, CDIAC Communications
James W. Simmonsd574-1060s4iWorkstation Specialist
Timothy W. Stamma974-8418tstamm@utk.eduRequest-Response Associate

aEnvironment, and Resources Center, The University of Tennessee.
bComputational Physics and Engineering Division, ORNL.
cJAYCOR, Oak Ridge, Tenn.
dComputing and Telecommunications Services, ORNL.
eNo longer affiliated with CDIAC.

Acronyms and Other Abbreviations

AGAGEAdvanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment
ALEAtmospheric Lifetime Experiment (ALE)
CDIACCarbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center
CFCchlorofluorocarbon
DOEU.S. Department of Energy
FTPFile Transfer Protocol
FYfiscal year
GAGEGlobal Atmospheric Gases Experiment
HCNHistorical Climatology Network
NCDCNational Climatic Data Center
NDPnumeric data package
NOAANational Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
ORNLOak Ridge National Laboratory
pCO2partial pressure carbon dioxide
TCO2total carbon dioxide
WDCAWorld Data CenterA