1 Comprises the sum of Africa, North America, South America, Asia, Europe, Oceania, the former U.S.S.R.,
and the Antarctic Fisheries.
2 Includes Christmas Island.
3 Identifies bunkers delivered by tankers to vessels on the Antarctic fishing grounds; fuels delivered to Antarctic
research stations are not included.
4 Refers to former Burma.
5 Refers to the former Democratic Kampuchea.
6 Excludes Taiwan province.
7 Includes Taiwan Province.
8 Prior to 1 January 1993, refers to the former Czechoslovakia composed of the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
9 Code used for population data only. Energy statistics for France and Monaco are combined (251).
10 From 1950 to 1958, data includes the Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, and Gabon.
11 From 1950 to 1954, data includes Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam.
12 From 1950 to 1957, data includes Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Guinea, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, and
13 Through accession of the German Democratic Republic to the Federated Republic of Germany with effect
from 3 October 1990, the two German States have united to form one sovereign state. As from the date of
unification, the Federal Republic of Germany acts in the United Nations under the designation of Germany.
All data shown which pertain to Germany prior to 3 October 1990, are indicated separately for the Federal
Republic of Germany and the former German Democratic Republic based on their respective territories at the
time indicated. Where data for united Germany (subsequent to 3 October 1990) are not available, they are
shown separately and pertain to the territorial boundaries prior to 3 October 1990.
14 From 1976 onwards, data includes East Timor.
15 Code used for population data only. Energy statistics for Italy and San Marino are combined (382).
16 Includes Okinawa.
17 Excludes Okinawa.
18 Includes part of the Neutral Zone.
19 In 1991, conflict in the Middle East resulted in large quantities of oil and gas being ignited at oil fields in
Kuwait. Using data principally from the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA
1991), we have estimated the amount of CO2 released by these fires at ~130 million metric tons of C (Andres
et al., in press). Because these emissions need to be included in our emissions estimates but because they have
little to do with the time series of releases from energy consumption and production activities in Kuwait, the
authors created an artificial country code (416) and identified these emissions as oil consumption and gas
flaring in the country labeled "Kuwaiti oil fires." Thus the emissions do not appear with the Kuwait national
emissions but are included in the Middle East and global totals.
20 From 1950 to 1956, data includes Antigua and Barbuda, the British Virgin Islands, Montserrat, and Saint
21 Code used for population data only. Energy statistics for Liechtenstein and Switzerland are combined (757).
22 From 1950 to 1956, data includes Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore.
23 Comprises Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, and Sarawak.
24 Comprises Bonaire, Curacao, Saba, Saint Eustatius, and the Dutch part of Saint Martin.
25 Code used for population data only. Energy statistics for Norway, Svalbard, and Jan Mayen Islands are
26 Comprises the Caroline, Mariana, and Marshall Islands but excludes Guam, which is shown separately.
27 From 1950 to 1971, data includes Bangladesh and Pakistan.
28 Excludes the former Panama Canal Zone.
29 Includes the former Panama Canal Zone.
30 From 1950 to 1961, data includes Burundi and Rwanda.
31 Includes Okinawa.
32 Includes part of the Neutral Zone.
33 From 1970 onwards, data include the former Democratic Republic of Vietnam and the Republic of South
34 For imports and exports only, data includes Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, and Swaziland.
35 From 1950 to 1963, data includes Malawi, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.
36 Comprises the seven emirates of the former Trucial Oman, namely: Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Fujaira, Ras al
Khaima, Sharja, and Umm al Qaiwan.
37 From 1970 onwards, data include Tanganyika and Zanzibar.
38 On 22 May 1990, Democratic Yemen and Yemen merged to form a single state. Since that date, they have
been represented as one member with the name Yemen. Where data for united Yemen (subsequent to 22 May
1990) are not available, they are shown separately and pertain to the territorial boundaries prior to 22 May
39 Prior to 1 January 1992, data refer to the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, which was composed of
the Fed. Republic of Yugoslavia, Slovenia, Bosnia-Herzegovinia, and Croatia