Houghton, R. A., and J. L. Hackler. 2001. Carbon Flux to the Atmosphere from Land-Use Changes: 1850 to 1990. ORNL/CDIAC-131, NDP-050/R1. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A.

APPENDIX A: ECOSYSTEM AREA BY REGION


This listing indicates the area (in units of 106 hectare) in different ecosystems for the nine regions in this database, for the years 1700, 1850, and 1990, along with the percent change from 1850 to 1990. The values in this listing replace the values in files areas.* in Houghton and Hackler (1995), the previous version of this database. Missing values are denoted by -9999.
                                                                   % Change
                                          1700     1850     1990  1850-1990
North America
         Temperate evergreen forest      236        222      215      -0.03
         Temperate deciduous forest      157        125      118      -0.06
         Boreal forest                   325        325      322      -0.01
         Temperate woodland/shrubland    302        302      292      -0.03
         Temperate grassland             568        481      172      -0.64

South and Central America
         Tropical evergreen forest     -9999        310      299      -0.03
         Tropical seasonal forest      -9999        756      604      -0.20    
         Tropical open forest          -9999        427      287      -0.33
         Temperate evergreen forest    -9999         67       57      -0.15
         Temperate seasonal forest     -9999         58       56      -0.03

Europe
         Temperate evergreen forest       85         66       72       0.10
         Temperate deciduous forest       65         56       56      -0.01
         Boreal forest                    35         28       27       0.00
         Temperate woodland/shrubland     45         45       45       0.00
         Temperate grassland              88         42       27      -0.36

North Africa and the Middle East
         Temperate evergreen forest       17.7       16        7      -0.56
         Tropical moist forest             2.1        2        2       0.00
         Tropical grassland               90         86       44      -0.49
         Desert scrub                    979        961      793      -0.17
         Tropical woodland/shrubland      32.4       31       19      -0.40

Tropical Africa
         Closed forest                 -9999        605      553      -0.09
         Open forest                   -9999        198      105      -0.47

Former Soviet Union
         Temperate evergreen forest       88         88       88       0.00
         Temperate deciduous forest      121         78       54      -0.31
         Boreal forest                   613        613      613       0.00
         Temperate woodland/shrubland    186        186      186       0.00
         Temperate grassland             175        144       31      -0.78

China
         Temperate evergreen forest      122         49       82       0.66
         Temperate deciduous forest      103         76       48      -0.38
         Temperate grassland             723        586      439      -0.25
         Tropical moist forest            18         14        8      -0.43

South and Southeast Asia
         Tropical moist forest         -9999        177       94      -0.47
         Tropical seasonal forest      -9999        179       89      -0.50
         Tropical open forest          -9999         52       40      -0.23
         Tropical grassland            -9999         55       36      -0.35

Pacific Developed Region
         Temperate evergreen forest       14         14       14       0.00
         Temperate deciduous forest       14         14       14       0.00
         Tropical moist forest            72         72       64      -0.12
         Tropical grassland              497        496       70      -0.86
         Tropical woodland/shrubland     120        120      106      -0.11