Houghton, R. A., and J. L. Hackler. 2001. Carbon Flux to the Atmosphere from Land-Use Changes: 1850 to 1990. ORNL/CDIAC-131, NDP-050/R1. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A.

APPENDIX B: REGIONAL LAND-USE CHANGE AND WOOD HARVEST DATA


The following listing provides the regional details of fuelwood (nonindustrial logging) and timber (industrial logging) harvest by forest type, changes in area of pasture, forest plantation, afforestation, forest clearing for croplands, and lands in shifting cultivation. The values in this listing replace the values in the indicated ascii and binary spreadsheet files in Houghton and Hackler (1995), the previous version of this database.
South and Southeast Asia

The following values replace the data in files asia-rat.* in Houghton and Hackler
(1995).

South and Southeast Asia Fuelwood Harvest (10^6 Mg C per year):

    Tropical Tropical Tropical
       moist seasonal     open
Year  forest   forest   forest

1751    8.58    10.50     4.50
1752    8.58    10.50     4.50
1753    8.58    10.50     4.50
1754    8.58    10.50     4.50
1755    8.58    10.50     4.50
1756    8.58    10.50     4.50
1757    8.58    10.50     4.50
1758    8.58    10.50     4.50
1759    8.58    10.50     4.50
1760    8.58    10.50     4.50
1761    8.58    10.50     4.50
1762    8.58    10.50     4.50
1763    8.58    10.50     4.50
1764    8.58    10.50     4.50
1765    8.58    10.50     4.50
1766    8.58    10.50     4.50
1767    8.58    10.50     4.50
1768    8.58    10.50     4.50
1769    8.58    10.50     4.50
1770    8.58    10.50     4.50
1771    8.58    10.50     4.50
1772    8.58    10.50     4.50
1773    8.58    10.50     4.50
1774    8.58    10.50     4.50
1775    8.58    10.50     4.50
1776    8.58    10.50     4.50
1777    8.58    10.50     4.50
1778    8.58    10.50     4.50
1779    8.58    10.50     4.50
1780    8.58    10.50     4.50
1781    8.58    10.50     4.50
1782    8.58    10.50     4.50
1783    8.58    10.50     4.50
1784    8.58    10.50     4.50
1785    8.58    10.50     4.50
1786    8.58    10.50     4.50
1787    8.58    10.50     4.50
1788    8.58    10.50     4.50
1789    8.58    10.50     4.50
1790    8.58    10.50     4.50
1791    8.58    10.50     4.50
1792    8.58    10.50     4.50
1793    8.58    10.50     4.50
1794    8.58    10.50     4.50
1795    8.58    10.50     4.50
1796    8.58    10.50     4.50
1797    8.58    10.50     4.50
1798    8.58    10.50     4.50
1799    8.58    10.50     4.50
1800    8.58    10.50     4.50
1801    8.58    10.50     4.50
1802    8.62    10.55     4.52
1803    8.66    10.60     4.54
1804    8.70    10.65     4.56
1805    8.74    10.70     4.59
1806    8.78    10.75     4.61
1807    8.82    10.80     4.63
1808    8.86    10.85     4.65
1809    8.90    10.90     4.67
1810    8.94    10.95     4.69
1811    8.98    11.00     4.71
1812    9.03    11.05     4.74
1813    9.07    11.10     4.76
1814    9.11    11.15     4.78
1815    9.15    11.20     4.80
1816    9.19    11.25     4.82
1817    9.23    11.30     4.84
1818    9.27    11.35     4.86
1819    9.31    11.40     4.89
1820    9.35    11.45     4.91
1821    9.39    11.50     4.93
1822    9.43    11.55     4.95
1823    9.47    11.60     4.97
1824    9.52    11.65     4.99
1825    9.56    11.70     5.01
1826    9.60    11.75     5.04
1827    9.64    11.80     5.06
1828    9.68    11.85     5.08
1829    9.72    11.90     5.10
1830    9.76    11.95     5.12
1831    9.80    12.00     5.14
1832    9.84    12.05     5.16
1833    9.88    12.10     5.19
1834    9.92    12.15     5.21
1835    9.96    12.20     5.23
1836   10.01    12.25     5.25
1837   10.05    12.30     5.27
1838   10.09    12.35     5.29
1839   10.13    12.40     5.31
1840   10.17    12.45     5.34
1841   10.21    12.50     5.36
1842   10.25    12.55     5.38
1843   10.29    12.60     5.40
1844   10.33    12.65     5.42
1845   10.37    12.70     5.44    
1846   10.41    12.75     5.46
1847   10.45    12.80     5.49
1848   10.50    12.85     5.51
1849   10.54    12.90     5.53
1850   10.58    12.95     5.55
1851   10.66    13.05     5.59
1852   10.74    13.15     5.63
1853   10.82    13.24     5.68
1854   10.90    13.34     5.72
1855   10.98    13.44     5.76
1856   11.06    13.54     5.80
1857   11.14    13.64     5.84
1858   11.22    13.73     5.89
1859   11.30    13.83     5.93
1860   11.38    13.93     5.97
1861   11.46    14.03     6.01
1862   11.54    14.13     6.05
1863   11.62    14.22     6.10
1864   11.70    14.32     6.14
1865   11.78    14.42     6.18
1866   11.86    14.52     6.22
1867   11.94    14.62     6.26
1868   12.02    14.71     6.31
1869   12.10    14.81     6.35
1870   12.18    14.91     6.39
1871   12.26    15.01     6.43
1872   12.34    15.11     6.47
1873   12.42    15.20     6.52
1874   12.50    15.30     6.56
1875   12.58    15.40     6.60
1876   12.66    15.50     6.64
1877   12.74    15.60     6.68
1878   12.82    15.69     6.73
1879   12.90    15.79     6.77
1880   12.98    15.89     6.81
1881   13.06    15.99     6.85
1882   13.14    16.09     6.89
1883   13.22    16.18     6.94
1884   13.30    16.28     6.98
1885   13.38    16.38     7.02
1886   13.46    16.48     7.06
1887   13.54    16.58     7.10
1888   13.62    16.67     7.15
1889   13.70    16.77     7.19
1890   13.78    16.87     7.23
1891   13.86    16.97     7.27
1892   13.94    17.07     7.31
1893   14.02    17.16     7.36
1894   14.10    17.26     7.40
1895   14.18    17.36     7.44
1896   14.26    17.46     7.48
1897   14.34    17.56     7.52
1898   14.42    17.65     7.57
1899   14.50    17.75     7.61
1900   14.58    17.85     7.65
1901   14.69    17.99     7.71
1902   14.81    18.13     7.77
1903   14.92    18.27     7.83
1904   15.04    18.41     7.89
1905   15.15    18.55     7.95
1906   15.27    18.69     8.01
1907   15.38    18.83     8.07
1908   15.49    18.97     8.13
1909   15.61    19.11     8.19
1910   15.72    19.25     8.25
1911   15.84    19.39     8.31
1912   15.95    19.53     8.37
1913   16.07    19.67     8.43
1914   16.18    19.81     8.49
1915   16.29    19.95     8.55
1916   16.41    20.09     8.61
1917   16.52    20.23     8.67
1918   16.64    20.37     8.73
1919   16.75    20.51     8.79
1920   16.87    20.65     8.85
1921   16.98    20.79     8.91
1922   17.10    20.93     8.97
1923   17.21    21.07     9.03
1924   17.32    21.21     9.09
1925   17.44    21.35     9.15
1926   17.71    21.69     9.29
1927   17.99    22.02     9.44
1928   18.26    22.36     9.58
1929   18.54    22.69     9.73
1930   18.81    23.03     9.87
1931   19.08    23.37    10.01
1932   19.36    23.70    10.16
1933   19.63    24.04    10.30
1934   19.91    24.37    10.45
1935   20.18    24.71    10.59
1936   20.46    25.05    10.73
1937   20.73    25.38    10.88
1938   21.01    25.72    11.02
1939   21.28    26.05    11.17
1940   21.55    26.39    11.31
1941   21.83    26.73    11.45
1942   22.10    27.06    11.60
1943   22.38    27.40    11.74
1944   22.65    27.73    11.89
1945   22.93    28.07    12.03
1946   23.20    28.41    12.17
1947   23.48    28.74    12.32
1948   23.75    29.08    12.46
1949   24.02    29.41    12.61
1950   24.30    29.75    12.75
1951   25.04    30.66    13.14
1952   25.79    31.57    13.53
1953   26.53    32.48    13.92
1954   27.27    33.39    14.31
1955   28.02    34.30    14.70
1956   28.76    35.21    15.09
1957   29.50    36.12    15.48
1958   30.25    37.03    15.87
1959   30.99    37.94    16.26
1960   31.73    38.85    16.65
1961   32.47    39.76    17.04
1962   33.17    40.67    17.43
1963   33.86    41.58    17.82
1964   34.63    42.49    18.21
1965   35.48    43.40    18.60
1966   36.32    44.31    18.99
1967   37.29    45.22    19.38
1968   38.31    46.13    19.77
1969   39.41    47.04    20.16
1970   40.50    47.95    20.55
1971   41.75    48.86    20.94
1972   42.92    49.77    21.33
1973   43.94    50.68    21.72
1974   45.51    51.59    22.11
1975   47.22    52.50    22.50
1976   48.17    53.76    23.04
1977   49.03    55.02    23.58
1978   49.89    56.28    24.12
1979   50.76    57.54    24.66
1980   51.82    58.80    25.20
1981   53.04    60.13    25.77
1982   54.11    61.46    26.34
1983   55.23    62.79    26.91
1984   56.46    64.12    27.48
1985   57.79    65.45    28.05
1986   58.93    66.78    28.62
1987   59.95    68.11    29.19
1988   61.04    69.44    29.76
1989   62.21    70.77    30.33
1990   63.59    72.10    30.90
1991   64.61    72.10    30.90
1992   67.58    72.10    30.90
1993   70.94    72.10    30.90
1994   74.01    72.10    30.90
1995   77.04    72.10    30.90


South and Southeast Asia Timber Harvest (10^6 Mg C per year):

    Tropical Tropical Tropical
       moist seasonal     open
Year  forest   forest   forest

1750    1.26     0.80     0.00
1751    1.27     0.80     0.00
1752    1.27     0.80     0.00
1753    1.28     0.81     0.00
1754    1.29     0.81     0.00
1755    1.29     0.81     0.00
1756    1.30     0.81     0.00
1757    1.30     0.81     0.00
1758    1.31     0.82     0.00
1759    1.31     0.82     0.00
1760    1.32     0.82     0.00
1761    1.32     0.82     0.00
1762    1.33     0.82     0.00
1763    1.33     0.83     0.00
1764    1.34     0.83     0.00
1765    1.34     0.83     0.00
1766    1.35     0.83     0.00
1767    1.35     0.83     0.00
1768    1.36     0.84     0.00
1769    1.37     0.84     0.00
1770    1.37     0.84     0.00
1771    1.38     0.84     0.00
1772    1.38     0.84     0.00
1773    1.39     0.85     0.00
1774    1.39     0.85     0.00
1775    1.40     0.85     0.00
1776    1.40     0.85     0.00
1777    1.41     0.85     0.00
1778    1.41     0.86     0.00
1779    1.42     0.86     0.00
1780    1.42     0.86     0.00
1781    1.43     0.86     0.00
1782    1.44     0.86     0.00
1783    1.44     0.87     0.00
1784    1.45     0.87     0.00
1785    1.45     0.87     0.00
1786    1.46     0.87     0.00
1787    1.46     0.87     0.00
1788    1.47     0.88     0.00
1789    1.47     0.88     0.00
1790    1.48     0.88     0.00
1791    1.48     0.88     0.00
1792    1.49     0.88     0.00
1793    1.49     0.89     0.00
1794    1.50     0.89     0.00
1795    1.51     0.89     0.00
1796    1.51     0.89     0.00
1797    1.52     0.89     0.00
1798    1.52     0.90     0.00
1799    1.53     0.90     0.00
1800    1.53     0.90     0.00
1801    1.54     0.90     0.00
1802    1.54     0.90     0.00
1803    1.55     0.91     0.00
1804    1.55     0.91     0.00
1805    1.56     0.91     0.00
1806    1.56     0.91     0.00
1807    1.57     0.91     0.00
1808    1.58     0.92     0.00
1809    1.58     0.92     0.00
1810    1.59     0.92     0.00
1811    1.59     0.92     0.00
1812    1.60     0.92     0.00
1813    1.60     0.93     0.00
1814    1.61     0.93     0.00
1815    1.61     0.93     0.00
1816    1.62     0.93     0.00
1817    1.62     0.93     0.00
1818    1.63     0.94     0.00
1819    1.63     0.94     0.00
1820    1.64     0.94     0.00
1821    1.64     0.94     0.00
1822    1.65     0.94     0.00
1823    1.66     0.95     0.00
1824    1.66     0.95     0.00
1825    1.67     0.95     0.00
1826    1.67     0.95     0.00
1827    1.68     0.95     0.00
1828    1.68     0.96     0.00
1829    1.69     0.96     0.00
1830    1.69     0.96     0.00
1831    1.70     0.96     0.00
1832    1.70     0.96     0.00
1833    1.71     0.97     0.00
1834    1.71     0.97     0.00
1835    1.72     0.97     0.00
1836    1.73     0.97     0.00
1837    1.73     0.97     0.00
1838    1.74     0.98     0.00
1839    1.74     0.98     0.00
1840    1.75     0.98     0.00
1841    1.75     0.98     0.00
1842    1.76     0.98     0.00
1843    1.76     0.99     0.00
1844    1.77     0.99     0.00
1845    1.77     0.99     0.00
1846    1.78     0.99     0.00
1847    1.78     0.99     0.00
1848    1.79     1.00     0.00
1849    1.80     1.00     0.00
1850    1.80     1.00     0.00
1851    1.81     1.01     0.00
1852    1.82     1.02     0.00
1853    1.82     1.02     0.00
1854    1.83     1.03     0.00
1855    1.84     1.04     0.00
1856    1.85     1.05     0.00
1857    1.86     1.06     0.00
1858    1.86     1.06     0.00
1859    1.87     1.07     0.00
1860    1.88     1.08     0.00
1861    1.89     1.09     0.00
1862    1.90     1.10     0.00
1863    1.90     1.10     0.00
1864    1.91     1.11     0.00
1865    1.92     1.12     0.00
1866    1.93     1.13     0.00
1867    1.94     1.14     0.00
1868    1.94     1.14     0.00
1869    1.95     1.15     0.00
1870    1.96     1.16     0.00
1871    1.97     1.17     0.00
1872    1.98     1.18     0.00
1873    1.98     1.18     0.00
1874    1.99     1.19     0.00
1875    2.00     1.20     0.00
1876    2.02     1.21     0.00
1877    2.04     1.22     0.00
1878    2.06     1.24     0.00
1879    2.08     1.25     0.00
1880    2.10     1.26     0.00
1881    2.12     1.27     0.00
1882    2.14     1.28     0.00
1883    2.16     1.30     0.00
1884    2.18     1.31     0.00
1885    2.20     1.32     0.00
1886    2.22     1.33     0.00
1887    2.24     1.34     0.00
1888    2.26     1.36     0.00
1889    2.28     1.37     0.00
1890    2.30     1.38     0.00
1891    2.32     1.39     0.00
1892    2.34     1.40     0.00
1893    2.36     1.42     0.00
1894    2.38     1.43     0.00
1895    2.40     1.44     0.00
1896    2.42     1.45     0.00
1897    2.44     1.46     0.00
1898    2.46     1.48     0.00
1899    2.48     1.49     0.00
1900    2.50     1.50     0.00
1901    2.52     1.51     0.00
1902    2.54     1.52     0.00
1903    2.56     1.52     0.00
1904    2.58     1.53     0.00
1905    2.60     1.54     0.00
1906    2.62     1.55     0.00
1907    2.64     1.56     0.00
1908    2.66     1.56     0.00
1909    2.68     1.57     0.00
1910    2.70     1.58     0.00
1911    2.72     1.59     0.00
1912    2.74     1.60     0.00
1913    2.76     1.60     0.00
1914    2.78     1.61     0.00
1915    2.80     1.62     0.00
1916    2.82     1.63     0.00
1917    2.84     1.64     0.00
1918    2.86     1.64     0.00
1919    2.88     1.65     0.00
1920    2.90     1.66     0.00
1921    2.92     1.67     0.00
1922    2.94     1.68     0.00
1923    2.96     1.68     0.00
1924    2.98     1.69     0.00
1925    3.00     1.70     0.00
1926    3.04     1.71     0.00
1927    3.08     1.72     0.00
1928    3.12     1.74     0.00
1929    3.16     1.75     0.00
1930    3.20     1.76     0.00
1931    3.24     1.77     0.00
1932    3.28     1.78     0.00
1933    3.32     1.80     0.00
1934    3.36     1.81     0.00
1935    3.40     1.82     0.00
1936    3.44     1.83     0.00
1937    3.48     1.84     0.00
1938    3.52     1.86     0.00
1939    3.56     1.87     0.00
1940    3.60     1.88     0.00
1941    3.64     1.89     0.00
1942    3.68     1.90     0.00
1943    3.72     1.92     0.00
1944    3.76     1.93     0.00
1945    3.80     1.94     0.00
1946    3.84     1.95     0.00
1947    3.88     1.96     0.00
1948    3.92     1.98     0.00
1949    3.96     1.99     0.00
1950    4.00     2.00     0.00
1951    4.50     2.25     0.00
1952    5.00     2.50     0.00
1953    5.50     2.75     0.00
1954    6.00     3.00     0.00
1955    6.50     3.25     0.00
1956    7.00     3.50     0.00
1957    7.50     3.75     0.00
1958    8.00     4.00     0.00
1959    8.50     4.25     0.00
1960    9.00     4.50     0.00
1961    9.70     4.65     0.00
1962   10.40     4.80     0.00
1963   11.10     4.95     0.00
1964   11.80     5.10     0.00
1965   12.50     5.25     0.00
1966   13.20     5.40     0.00
1967   13.90     5.55     0.00
1968   14.60     5.70     0.00
1969   15.30     5.85     0.00
1970   16.00     6.00     0.00
1971   16.50     6.30     0.00
1972   17.00     6.60     0.00
1973   17.50     6.90     0.00
1974   18.00     7.20     0.00
1975   18.50     7.50     0.00
1976   19.00     7.80     0.00
1977   19.50     8.10     0.00
1978   20.00     8.40     0.00
1979   20.50     8.70     0.00
1980   21.00     9.00     0.00
1981   21.83     9.37     0.00
1982   22.67     9.73     0.00
1983   23.50    10.10     0.00
1984   24.33    10.47     0.00
1985   25.17    10.83     0.00
1986   26.00    11.20     0.00
1987   26.83    11.57     0.00
1988   27.67    11.93     0.00
1989   28.50    12.30     0.00
1990   28.50    12.30     0.00
1991   31.22    13.47     0.00
1992   32.00    13.81     0.00
1993   30.02    12.95     0.00
1994   28.68    12.38     0.00
1995   28.49    12.29     0.00


South and Southeast Asia Forest Clearing for Croplands (stepped changes between
dates) (10^6 hectares per year):

         Tropical Tropical Tropical
            moist seasonal     open
Years      forest   forest   forest

1750-1799   0.000    0.000    0.000
1800-1809   0.008    0.272    0.000
1810-1829   0.027    0.268    0.000
1830-1849   0.038    0.459    0.000
1850-1869   0.040    0.450    0.000
1870-1889   0.081    0.626    0.000
1890-1904   0.136    0.702    0.040
1905-1911   0.178    0.708    0.070
1912-1914   0.178    0.468    0.070
1915-1924   0.238    0.446    0.060
1925-1934   0.230    0.409    0.058
1935-1944   0.227    0.630    0.007
1945-1947   0.347    1.194    0.157
1948-1951   0.347    1.184    0.157
1952-1956   0.357    0.576    0.123
1957-1961   0.160    0.804    0.240
1962-1966   0.293    0.676    0.187
1967-1969   0.360    0.597    0.263
1970-1971   0.360    0.417    0.263
1972-1974   0.576    0.780    0.184
1975-1979   1.200    0.860    0.103
1980-1985   2.711    1.035    0.207
1986-1990   2.721    0.765    0.206
1991-1995   2.271    0.639    0.172


South and Southeast Asia Lands in Shifting Cultivation Cycle (linear change between
dates) (10^6 hectares per year):

         Tropical Tropical Tropical
            moist seasonal     open
Years      forest   forest   forest

1750-1801    3.73     0.00     0.35
1802-1939    3.73     0.00     0.35
1940-1944    3.85     0.00     0.36
1945-1949    3.93     0.00     0.36
1950-1954    4.09     0.00     0.37
1955-1959    4.17     0.00     0.38
1960-1964    4.35     0.00     0.39
1965-1969    4.63     0.00     0.40
1970-1974    4.85     0.00     0.40
1975-1979    5.25     0.00     0.42
1980-1985    5.69     0.00     0.42
1986-1990    6.15     0.00     0.44
1991-1995    6.25     0.00     0.44


China

The following values replace the data in files chin-rat.* in Houghton and Hackler
(1995).

China Clearing for Croplands (10^6 hectares per year):

         Temperate    Temperate   Tropical   
         evergreen    deciduous      moist   Temperate
Years       forest       forest     forest   grassland

1700-1701    0.000        0.000      0.000       0.000
1702-1872    0.046        0.182      0.030       0.046
1873-1912    0.038        0.152      0.025       0.038
1913-1932    0.055        0.220      0.037       0.055
1933-1953    0.000        0.300      0.049       0.150
1954-1964    0.000        0.470      0.112       0.540
1965-1969    0.000        0.480      0.097       0.390
1970-1979    0.000        0.000      0.065       0.590
1980-1990    0.000        0.000      0.000       0.000


China Afforestation (10^6 hectares per year):

Years     Temperate evergreen forest

1700-1710          0.00
1951-1970          1.40
1971-1980          2.40
1981-1990          0.38


China Wood Harvest (10^6 Mg C per year):

         Tropical  Temperate  Temperate
            moist  evergreen  deciduous
Years      forest     forest     forest

1700-1859     0.8        3.7        4.6
1860-1874     2.0       10.0       12.0
1875-1899     2.0       10.0       12.0
1900-1924     2.0       11.0       13.0
1925-1949     3.0       12.0       15.0
1950-1969     3.0       13.0       16.0
1970-1979     5.0       22.0       27.0
1980-1980     5.0       25.0       31.0
1981-1990     6.7       31.7       38.6


China Lands in Pasture (10^6 hectares per year):

Years     Temperate grassland

1700-1701         1.0
1702-1780         0.9
1781-1860         0.6
1861-1875         0.6
1876-1900         0.8
1901-1925         0.8
1926-1950         2.1
1951-1970         0.8
1971-1980         0.4
1981-1990         0.0


Europe

The following values replace the data in files euro-rat.* in Houghton and Hackler
(1995).

Europe Clearing for Croplands (10^6 hectares per year):

          Temperate  Temperate
          evergreen  deciduous   Boreal  Temperate
Years        forest     forest   forest  grassland

1700-1701    0.0600     0.0600   0.0500     0.2600
1702-1869    0.0600     0.0600   0.0500     0.2600
1870-1959    0.0200     0.0200   0.0170     0.0860
1960-1961    0.0000     0.0000   0.0000     0.0000
1962-1969    0.0000     0.0000   0.0000     0.0000
1970-1974   -0.2000    -0.2000  -0.2000    -0.2000
1975-1980   -0.2000    -0.2000  -0.2000    -0.2000
1981-1990   -0.0506    -0.0506  -0.0506    -0.0506


Europe Afforestation (10^6 hectares per year):

Years     Temperate evergreen forest

1700-1710         0.00
1711-1711         0.00
1712-1800         0.00
1801-1849         0.02
1850-1875         0.02
1876-1900         0.03
1901-1925         0.05
1926-1950         0.08
1951-1980         0.08
1981-1990         0.08


Europe Wood Harvest (10^6 Mg C per year):

          Temperate   Temperate    
          evergreen   deciduous   Boreal
Year         forest      forest   forest

1700           12.0        10.0      2.0
1860           26.0        22.0      5.0
1875           29.0        24.0      5.0
1900           35.0        30.0      6.0
1925           44.0        37.0      8.0
1950           41.0        35.0      7.0
1970           49.0        41.0      8.0
1980           44.0        38.0      8.0
1981-1990      51.8        43.9      9.1


Europe Lands in Pasture (10^6 hectares per year):

Years     Temperate grassland

1700-1701          0.05
1702-1780          0.05
1781-1860          0.05
1861-1875          0.05
1876-1900          0.05
1901-1925          0.05
1926-1950          0.00
1951-1970          0.00
1971-1980          0.00
1981-1990          0.00


Former Soviet Union

The following values replace the data in files fsu-rat.* in Houghton and Hackler
(1995).

Former Soviet Union Clearing for Croplands (10^6 hectares per year):

Years      Temperate deciduous forest     Temperate grassland

1700-1860          0.288                        0.206
1861-1911          0.098                        0.588
1912-1939          0.148                        1.111
1940-1949         -0.333                       -0.111
1950-1957          1.429                        5.714
1958-1968          0.364                        0.636
1969-1970         -0.065                       -0.065
1971-1974         -0.065                       -0.065
1975-1976          0.038                        0.038
1977-1980          0.038                        0.038
1981-1984          0.022                        0.022
1985-1990         -0.072                       -0.409


Former Soviet Union Timber Harvest (10^6 Mg C per year):

Years     Temperate deciduous forest   Boreal forest

1700-1701         0.00                      0.00
1702-1850         0.36                      1.44
1851-1919         3.72                     14.88
1914-1932         9.88                     39.52
1933-1945        10.10                     40.40
1946-1960        22.18                     88.72
1961-1970        23.10                     92.40
1971-1975        22.26                     89.04
1976-1980        21.42                     85.68
1981-1985        21.42                     85.68
1986-1990        23.96                     95.84


Former Soviet Union Fuelwood Harvest (10^6 Mg C per year):

Years     Temperate deciduous forest   Boreal forest

1700-1701         0.000                    0.000
1702-1850        14.364                   23.436
1851-1919        26.448                   43.152
1914-1932        25.422                   41.478
1933-1945        15.960                   26.040
1946-1960         4.560                    7.440
1961-1970         4.218                    6.882
1971-1975         3.990                    6.510
1976-1980         3.762                    6.138
1981-1990         3.762                    6.138


North Africa and the Middle East

The following values replace the data in files nafm-rat.* in Houghton and Hackler
(1995).

North Africa and the Middle East Clearing for Croplands (10^6 hectares per year):

          Temperate                      Tropical
          evergreen   Tropical  Desert  woodland/
Years        forest  grassland   scrub  shrubland

1700-1701     0.000      0.000   0.000      0.000
1702-1859     0.014      0.024   0.000      0.010
1860-1899     0.066      0.111   0.000      0.044
1900-1924     0.091      0.151   0.000      0.060
1925-1949     0.150      0.410   0.100      0.170
1950-1964     0.000      0.640   0.510      0.130
1965-1979     0.000      0.730   0.590      0.150
1980-1990     0.000      0.297   0.238      0.061


North Africa and the Middle East Wood Harvest (10^6 Mg C per year):

Year  Temperate evergreen forest  Tropical moist forest

1700          0.90                       0.50
1860          1.00                       1.00
1875          1.00                       1.00
1900          2.00                       1.00
1925          2.00                       1.00
1950          3.00                       2.00
1970          6.00                       3.00
1980          7.00                       4.00
1990         10.94                       6.25


North Africa and the Middle East Lands in Pasture (10^6 hectares per year):

Years     Desert scrub

1700-1701      0.1
1702-1780      0.1
1781-1860      0.2
1861-1875      0.5
1876-1900      0.7
1901-1925      1.5
1926-1950      2.1
1951-1970      1.3
1971-1990      0.5


North America

The following values replace the data in files nam-rat.* in Houghton and Hackler
(1995).

North America Clearing for Croplands (10^6 hectares per year):

                                    Temperate forest              Temperate
             Temperate forest        (abandonment)       Boreal   woodland/   Temperate
Years      evergreen  deciduous   evergreen  deciduous   forest   shrubland   grassland

1700-1701      0.135      0.315      -0.045     -0.105     0.00       0.000       0.000
1702-1849      0.135      0.315      -0.045     -0.105     0.00       0.000       0.000
1850-1889      0.135      0.135      -0.045     -0.045     0.03       0.090       1.200
1890-1927      0.210      0.210      -0.070     -0.070     0.05       0.140       1.810
1928-1949      0.045      0.045      -0.015     -0.015     0.01       0.030       0.400
1950-1969      0.010      0.010      -0.010     -0.010     0.00       0.000       0.000
1970-1979      0.010      0.010      -0.100     -0.100     0.00       0.000      -0.020
1980-1990     -0.122     -0.122       0.000      0.000     0.00       0.000      -0.027


North America Wood Harvest (10^6 Mg C per year):

     Temperate   Temperate
     evergreen   deciduous   Boreal
Year    forest      forest   forest

1700       1.4         1.2      2.3
1860      30.0        26.0     51.0
1875      37.0        31.0     62.0
1900      36.0        31.0     61.0
1925      38.0        32.0     64.0
1950      33.0        28.0     55.0
1970      38.0        32.0     63.0
1980      41.0        35.0     69.0
1990      55.1        46.8     92.5


North America Lands in Pasture (10^6 hectares per year):

Years     Temperate grassland

1700-1701         0.3
1702-1780         0.6
1781-1860         0.9
1861-1875         1.8
1876-1900         3.6
1901-1925         1.6
1926-1950         0.1
1951-1970         0.0
1971-1990         0.0


Pacific Developed Region

The following values replace the data in files pcdv-rat.* in Houghton and Hackler
(1995).

Pacific Developed Region Clearing for Croplands (10^6 hectares per year):

          Tropical                Tropical
             moist    Tropical   woodland/
Years       forest   grassland   shrubland

1700-1869    0.001       0.004       0.002
1870-1949    0.038       0.152       0.064
1950-1969    0.220       0.860       0.360
1970-1979    0.030       0.120       0.050
1980-1990    0.051       2.000       0.084


Pacific Developed Region Wood Harvest (10^6 Mg C per year):

          Temperate   Temperate   Tropical
          evergreen   deciduous      moist
Years        forest      forest     forest

1700-1701       3.8         4.5        1.2
1702-1859       5.0         6.0        1.0
1860-1874       5.0         6.0        2.0
1875-1899       7.0         8.0        2.0
1900-1924       9.0        11.0        3.0
1925-1949      12.0        14.0        4.0
1950-1969      12.0        13.0        3.0
1970-1979      10.0        12.0        3.0
1980-1990       6.9         8.2        2.1
                                     

Pacific Developed Region Lands in Pasture (10^6 hectares per year):

           Tropical   Desert
Years     grassland    scrub

1700-1701       0.0      0.0
1702-1780       0.0      0.0
1781-1860       0.0      0.0
1861-1875       0.0      0.0
1876-1900       0.0      0.0
1901-1925       8.0      2.6
1926-1950       7.8      1.7
1951-1970       0.6      0.2
1971-1990       0.6      0.2
                                     

South and Central America

The following values replace the data in files scam-rat.* in Houghton and Hackler
(1995).

South and Central America Lands in Forest Plantation (10^6 hectares per year):

Years     Tropical seasonal forest

1800-1948        0.000
1949-1954        0.040
1955-1957        0.040
1958-1962        0.079
1963-1967        0.127
1968-1977        0.228
1978-1982        0.410
1983-1990        0.535


South and Central America Clearing for Croplands (10^6 hectares per year):

            Tropical  Tropical                  Warm  Temperate
          equatorial  seasonal  Tropical  coniferous  broadleaf             Desert
Years         forest    forest  woodland      forest     forest  Grassland   scrub

1800-1849     0.0037    0.0267    0.0147      0.0037     0.0009     0.0414  0.0009
1850-1859     0.0037    0.0267    0.0147      0.0037     0.0009     0.0414  0.0009
1860-1869     0.0082    0.0595    0.0328      0.0082     0.0021     0.0923  0.0021
1870-1879     0.0082    0.0595    0.0328      0.0082     0.0021     0.0923  0.0021
1880-1889     0.0264    0.1910    0.1056      0.0264     0.0066     0.2970  0.0066
1890-1899     0.0240    0.1740    0.0960      0.0240     0.0060     0.2700  0.0060
1900-1909     0.0864    0.6260    0.3456      0.0864     0.0216     0.9720  0.0216
1910-1919    -0.0032   -0.0232   -0.0128     -0.0032    -0.0008    -0.0360 -0.0008
1920-1929     0.0616    0.4470    0.2464      0.0616     0.0154     0.6930  0.0154
1930-1939     0.0572    0.4150    0.2288      0.0572     0.0143     0.6440  0.0143
1940-1949     0.0292    0.2120    0.1168      0.0292     0.0073     0.3280  0.0073
1950-1959     0.0660    0.4780    0.2640      0.0660     0.0165     0.7420  0.0165
1960-1969     0.1740    1.2640    0.6976      0.1744     0.0436     1.9620  0.0436
1970-1979     0.1010    0.7310    0.4032      0.1008     0.0252     1.1340  0.0252
1980-1982     0.0460    0.3310    1.2480      0.0460     0.0110     0.5130  0.0110
1983-1984     0.0460    0.3310    1.2620      0.0460     0.0110     0.5130  0.0110
1986-1987     0.0460    0.3310    1.2860      0.0460     0.0110     0.5130  0.0110
1988-1989     0.0460    0.3310    0.9940      0.0460     0.0110     0.5130  0.0110
1990          0.0460    0.3310    0.7000      0.0460     0.0110     0.5130  0.0110
                       

South and Central America Lands in Pasture (10^6 hectares per year):

            Tropical  Tropical                  Warm  Temperate
          equatorial  seasonal  Tropical  coniferous  broadleaf             Desert
Years         forest    forest  woodland      forest     forest  Grassland   scrub

1800-1859      0.000     0.000     0.735       0.000      0.000      1.323   0.042
1860-1869      0.005     0.090    -0.210       0.005      0.000     -0.378  -0.012
1870-1879      0.000     0.000     0.525       0.000      0.000      0.945   0.030
1880-1889      0.005     0.090     1.330       0.005      0.000      2.394   0.076
1890-1899      0.005     0.090     0.000       0.005      0.000      0.000   0.000
1900-1909      0.005     0.090     0.770       0.005      0.000      1.386   0.044
1910-1919      0.015     0.270     0.420       0.015      0.000      0.756   0.024
1920-1929      0.015     0.270    -0.280       0.015      0.000     -0.504  -0.016
1930-1939      0.020     0.360     0.665       0.020      0.000      1.197   0.038
1940-1949      0.025     0.450     1.820       0.025      0.000      3.276   0.104
1950-1959      0.045     0.810     1.715       0.045      0.000      3.087   0.098
1960-1969      0.055     0.990     2.415       0.055      0.000      4.347   0.138
1970-1979      0.075     1.350     0.210       0.075      0.000      0.378   0.012
1980-1982      0.060     1.752     0.000       0.060      0.000      0.000   0.000
1983-1985      0.060     2.259     0.000       0.060      0.000      0.000   0.000
1986-1987      0.060     2.660     0.000       0.060      0.000      0.000   0.000
1988-1989      0.060     2.480     0.000       0.060      0.000      0.000   0.000
1990           0.060     2.039     0.000       0.060      0.000      0.000   0.000


South and Central America Wood Harvest (10^6 Mg C per year):

Years     Tropical seasonal forest   Warm coniferous forest

1800-1801        0.416                  0.301
1802-1874        0.518                  0.378
1875-1899        0.832                  0.602
1900-1924        1.978                  1.428
1925-1949        3.953                  2.860
1950-1974       12.080                  8.720
1975-1979       18.720                 13.540
1980-1984       21.420                 15.500
1985-1990       21.420                 15.500
                       

South and Central America Lands in Shifting Cultivation (10^6 hectares per year):

Years     Tropical seasonal forest   Tropical woodland

1800-1939        5.1176                     9.3333
1940-1944        5.1376                     9.3333
1945-1949        5.2976                     9.3533
1950-1954        5.4176                     9.4333
1955-1959        5.5376                     9.4933
1960-1964        5.6376                     9.5133
1965-1969        5.8176                     9.5333
1970-1974        6.0776                     9.5533
1975-1979        6.3376                     9.5733
1980-1984        6.6556                     9.5933
1985-1999        6.6556                     9.5933


Tropical Africa

The following values replace the data in files taf-rat.* in Houghton and Hackler
(1995).

Tropical Africa Forest Clearing (10^6 hectares per year):

Years       Closed forest   Open forest

1800-1824        0.021         0.037
1825-1849        0.029         0.051
1850-1859        0.036         0.064
1860-1874        0.045         0.080
1875-1887        0.054         0.096
1885-1899        0.065         0.115
1900-1909        0.090         0.160
1910-1919        0.126         0.224
1920-1929        0.162         0.288
1930-1939        0.198         0.352
1940-1949        0.324         0.576
1950-1959        0.504         0.896
1960-1969        0.792         1.408
1970-1977        1.080         1.920
1978-1979        1.324         2.354
1980-1984        1.440         2.560
1985-1989        1.836         3.264
1990             2.160         3.840