Houghton, R. A., and J. L. Hackler. 2001. Carbon Flux to the Atmosphere from Land-Use Changes: 1850 to 1990. ORNL/CDIAC-131, NDP-050/R1. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A.

APPENDIX C: REGIONAL CARBON-CHANGE COEFFICIENTS


The following listing provides the regional values and coefficients associated with oxidation and recovery of carbon in vegetation, soils, and forest products. The values in this listing replace the values in the indicated ascii files and binary spreadsheet files in Houghton and Hackler (1995), the previous version of this database.

The values for five kinds of response curve are provided herein: clearing response curve (changes in the carbon in vegetation and soils resulting from the clearing of natural ecosystems for croplands), pasture response curve (changes in the carbon in vegetation and soils resulting from the clearing of natural ecosystems for pasture), forest plantation response curve (changes in carbon in vegetation and soils following the clearing of forests for plantations), shifting cultivation response curve (changes in the carbon in vegetation and soils following the clearing of natural ecosystems for shifting cultivation), and logging response curve (changes in the carbon in vegetation following the harvest of forests and recovery; the amount of carbon in soils was assumed to be unchanged).

The following values are provided in this appendix:

In some cases, the specific meaning of a term will change according to the context (type of ecosystem, land use, or land-use change involved). Thus, "recovery" in the case of clearing for agriculture is measured from time of abandonment. In the case of shifting cultivation it is measured from the onset of the fallow period, and in a logged forest it is measured following the initial harvest. In the case of logging, a "recovered" system is a secondary forest that can be harvested again, and "crop" represents wood harvested. In the case of shifting cultivation, the "disturbed" state refers to the beginning of the fallow cycle, and the "recovered" state refers to the end of the fallow cycle; the "time for vegetation to return from disturbed to recovered state" represents the length of the fallow cycle.
South and Southeast Asia (the following values replace the data in files asia-re.*
and asia-sh.* in Houghton and Hackler 1995)

South and Southeast Asia Clearing Response Curve:

                                                        Tropical  Tropical  Tropical
                                                           moist  seasonal      open
                                                          forest    forest    forest

Carbon in undisturbed vegetation (Mg C/ha)                 250       150        60
Carbon in recovered vegetation (Mg C/ha)                   175       105        42
Carbon in crops (Mg C/ha)                                    5         5         5
Time for vegetation to return from disturbed
     to recovered state (yr)                                37        29        12
Time for vegetation to return from recovered
     to primary state (yr)                                  40        30        40
Carbon in undisturbed soil (Mg C/ha)                       120        80        50
Carbon in recovered soil (Mg C/ha)                         120        80        50
Soil carbon after initial rapid change (Mg C/ha)            96        64        40
Minimum soil carbon (Mg C/ha)                               84        56        37
Duration of initial rapid change (yr)                        5         5         5
Time to minimum soil carbon (yr)                             5         5         5
Time for soil carbon to return from minimum
     to recovered state (yr)                                40        29        12
Fraction of harvested vegetation assigned
     to decay pools:
          1-yr                                               0.4       0.4       0.4
         10-yr                                               0.1       0.1       0.1
        100-yr                                               0.0       0.0       0.0
       1000-yr                                               0.0       0.0       0.0
Fraction of harvested vegetation left to decay on-site       0.5       0.5       0.5
Rate constant for on-site decay (per yr)                     0.5       0.4       0.3


South and Southeast Asia Shifting Cultivation Response Curve:

                                                                  Tropical  Tropical 
                                                                     moist      open
                                                                    forest    forest

Carbon in undisturbed vegetation(Mg C/ha)                           250        60
Carbon in recovered vegetation (Mg C/ha)                             90        35
Carbon in crops (Mg C/ha)                                             15        5
Time for vegetation to return from disturbed
     to recovered state (yr)                                          15       10
Time for vegetation to return from recovered
     to primary state (yr)                                            22        2
Carbon in undisturbed soil (Mg C/ha)                                 120       50
Carbon in recovered soil (Mg C/ha)                                   108       45
Soil carbon after initial rapid change (Mg C/ha)                      90       38
Minimum soil carbon (Mg C/ha)                                         90       38
Duration of initial rapid change (yr)                                  2        2
Time to minimum soil carbon (yr)                                       2        2
Time for soil carbon to return from minimum
     to recovered state (yr)                                          15       10
Time for soil carbon to return from recovered
     to primary state (yr)                                            22        2
Fraction of harvested vegetation assigned to decay pools:
          1-yr                                                         0.38     0.41
         10-yr                                                         0.07     0.10
        100-yr                                                         0.00     0.00
       1000-yr                                                         0.02     0.02
Fraction of harvested vegetation left to decay on-site                 0.53     0.47
Rate constant for on-site decay (per year)                             0.50     0.30


South and Southeast Asia Logging Response Curve:
                                                                               
                                                                 Tropical   Tropical
                                                                    moist   seasonal
                                                                   forest     forest

Carbon in undisturbed vegetation (Mg C/ha)                       250        150
Carbon in recovered vegetation (Mg C/ha)                         175        105
Carbon in disturbed vegetation (Mg C/ha)                         110         60
Time for vegetation to return from disturbed
     to recovered state (yr)                                      20         20
Carbon in undisturbed soil (Mg C/ha)                             120         80
Carbon in recovered soil (Mg C/ha)                               120         80
Minimum soil carbon (Mg C/ha)                                    120         80
Carbon in crops (Mg C/ha)                                         27         16
Carbon in slash (Mg C/ha)                                        219        131
Fraction of harvested vegetation assigned
     to decay pools:
          1-yr                                                     0.0162     0.0162
         10-yr                                                     0.0088     0.0088
        100-yr                                                     0.1000     0.1000
Fraction of harvested vegetation left to decay on-site             0.8750     0.8750
Rate constant for on-site decay (per year)                         0.5000     0.3000


Former Soviet Union (the following values replace the data in files fsu-re.* and
fsulogpt.* in
Houghton and Hackler 1995)

Former Soviet Union Clearing Response Curve:

                                                                   Temperate
                                                        Temperate  deciduous  Boreal
                                                        grassland     forest  forest

Carbon in undisturbed vegetation (Mg C/ha)                   10       135      90
Carbon in recovered vegetation (Mg C/ha)                     10       108      72
Carbon in crops (Mg C/ha)                                     5         5       5
Time for vegetation to return from disturbed
     to recovered state (yr)                                 10        40      80
Time for vegetation to return from recovered
     to primary state (yr)                                    5        21      43
Carbon in undisturbed soil (Mg C/ha)                        189       134     206
Carbon in recovered soil (Mg C/ha)                          189       134     206
Soil carbon after initial rapid change (Mg C/ha)            161       114     175
Minimum soil carbon (Mg C/ha)                               151       107     165
Duration of initial rapid change (yr)                        15        10      15
Time to minimum soil carbon (yr)                             30        30      65
Time for soil carbon to return from minimum
     to recovered state (yr)                                 45        40      80
Time for soil carbon to return from recovered
     to primary state (yr)                                    5        21      43
Fraction of harvested vegetation assigned to decay pools:
          1-yr                                                0.4       0.48    0.48
         10-yr                                                0.1       0.24    0.24
        100-yr                                                0.0       0.08    0.08
       1000-yr                                                0.0       0.00    0.00
Fraction of harvested vegetation left to decay on-site        0.5       0.20    0.20
Rate constant for on-site decay (per year)                    0.5       0.04    0.05


Former Soviet Union Logging Response Curve:

                                               Fuelwood Harvest    Timber Harvest   
                                               Temperate           Temperate 
                                               deciduous  Boreal   deciduous  Boreal
                                                  forest  forest      forest  forest

Carbon in undisturbed vegetation (Mg C/ha)        135      90         135      90
Carbon in recovered vegetation (Mg C/ha)          108      72         108      72
Carbon in disturbed vegetation (Mg C/ha)           97      46           0       0
Time for vegetation to return from disturbed
     to recovered state (yr)                       14      29          40      80
Time for vegetation to return from recovered
     to primary state (yr)                         20      24          20      24
Carbon in undisturbed soil (Mg C/ha)              134      206        134     206
Fraction of harvested vegetation left
     to decay on-site                               0.20     0.21       0.37    0.30
Rate constant for on-site decay (per year)          0.04     0.05       0.04    0.05


Former Soviet Union Partitioning of logging products into decay pools by harvest
type,
ecosystem type, and year:

Fuelwood harvest

Temperate deciduous forest
                                                       Years                        
Decay pool                     1700-1944  1945-1959  1960-1974  1975-1979  1980-1990

1-yr                             0.71132    0.73342    0.59211    0.65211    0.64737
10-yr                            0.00000    0.00000    0.00000    0.00000    0.00000
100-yr                           0.07816    0.05605    0.19737    0.13737    0.14211
1000-yr                          0.00000    0.00000    0.00000    0.00000    0.00000


Boreal forest
                                                       Years                        
Decay pool                     1700-1944  1945-1959  1960-1974  1975-1979  1980-1990

1-yr                             0.71670    0.73898    0.59659    0.65705    0.65227
10-yr                            0.00000    0.00000    0.00000    0.00000    0.00000
100-yr                           0.07875    0.05648    0.19886    0.13841    0.14318
1000-yr                          0.00000    0.00000    0.00000    0.00000    0.00000


Timber harvest

Temperate deciduous forest
                                                         Year                    
Decay pool                              1700      1945      1960      1975      1990

1-yr                                 0.21407   0.40296   0.18259   0.11333   0.09444
10-yr                                0.00000   0.00000   0.00000   0.00000   0.00000
100-yr                               0.41556   0.22667   0.44704   0.51630   0.53519
1000-yr                              0.00000   0.00000   0.00000   0.00000   0.00000


Boreal forest
                                                         Year                    
Decay pool                              1700      1945      1960      1975      1990

1-yr                                 0.23611   0.44444   0.20139   0.12500   0.10417
10-yr                                0.00000   0.00000   0.00000   0.00000   0.00000
100-yr                               0.45833   0.25000   0.49306   0.56944   0.59028
1000-yr                              0.00000   0.00000   0.00000   0.00000   0.00000


South and Central America (the following values replace the data in files scam_re.*
in Houghton
and Hackler 1995)

South and Central America Clearing Response Curve:
                                                                                     
            
                                            Tropical  Tropical                  Warm 
                                          equatorial  seasonal  Tropical  coniferous
                                              forest    forest  woodland      forest 

Carbon in undisturbed vegetation (Mg C/ha)    200       140        55         168    
Carbon in recovered vegetation (Mg C/ha)      200       140        55         168    
Carbon in crops (Mg C/ha)                       5         5         5           5    
Time for vegetation to return from
     disturbed to primary state (yr)           40        35        18          42    
Carbon in undisturbed soil (Mg C/ha)           98        98        69         134    
Soil carbon after initial
     rapid change (Mg C/ha)                    78        78        55         107    
Duration of initial rapid change (yr)           5         5         5           5    
Minimum soil carbon (Mg C/ha)                  74        74        52         100    
Time to minimum soil carbon (yr)               20        20        20          20    
Time for soil carbon to return from
     minimum to primary state (yr)             40        35        18          42    
Fraction of harvested vegetation assigned
     to decay pools:
          1-yr                                  0.30      0.30      0.30        0.30 
         10-yr                                  0.35      0.35      0.30        0.35 
        100-yr                                  0.00      0.00      0.00        0.00 
       1000-yr                                  0.02      0.02      0.02        0.02 
Fraction of harvested vegetation left
     to decay on-site                           0.33      0.33      0.38        0.33 
Rate constant for on-site decay (per year)      0.50      0.40      0.30        0.30 
                                                                                     
                                                        Temperate                    
                                                        broadleaf             Desert
                                                           forest  Grassland   scrub

Carbon in undisturbed vegetation (Mg C/ha)                 100         10       6
Carbon in recovered vegetation (Mg C/ha)                   100         10       6
Carbon in crops (Mg C/ha)                                    5          5       6
Time for vegetation to return from
     disturbed to primary state (yr)                        25          2       1
Carbon in undisturbed soil (Mg C/ha)                       134         42      58
Soil carbon after initial rapid change (Mg C/ha)           107         34      46
Duration of initial rapid change (yr)                        5          5       5
Minimum soil carbon (Mg C/ha)                              100         32      44
Time to minimum soil carbon (yr)                            20         20      20
Time for soil carbon to return from minimum
     to primary state (yr)                                  40         18      40
Fraction of harvested vegetation assigned
     to decay pools:
          1-yr                                               0.30       0.48    0.48
         10-yr                                               0.35       0.00    0.00
        100-yr                                               0.00       0.00    0.00
       1000-yr                                               0.02       0.02    0.02
Fraction of harvested vegetation left to decay on-site       0.33       0.50    0.50
Rate constant for on-site decay (per year)                   0.50       0.30    0.20


South and Central America Pasture Response Curve:

                                            Tropical  Tropical                  Warm 
                                          equatorial  seasonal  Tropical  coniferous
                                              forest    forest  woodland      forest 


Carbon in undisturbed vegetation (Mg C/ha)    200       140        55         168
Carbon in disturbed vegetation (Mg C/ha)       10        10        28          10
Time for vegetation to return from
     disturbed to primary state (yr)           40        35        18          42
Carbon in undisturbed soil (Mg C/ha)           98        98        69         134
Minimum soil carbon (Mg C/ha)                  87        87        69         118
Time to minimum soil carbon (yr)               20        20        20          20
Time for soil carbon to return from
     minimum to primary state (yr)             40        35        18          42
Fraction of harvested vegetation assigned
     to decay pools:
          1-yr                                  0.30      0.30      0.30        0.30
         10-yr                                  0.35      0.35      0.30        0.35
        100-yr                                  0.00      0.00      0.00        0.00
       1000-yr                                  0.02      0.02      0.02        0.02
Fraction of harvested vegetation left
     to decay on-site                           0.33      0.33      0.38        0.33
Rate constant for on-site decay (per year)      0.50      0.40      0.30        0.30

                                                        Temperate                    
                                                        broadleaf             Desert
                                                           forest  Grassland   scrub

Carbon in undisturbed vegetation (Mg C/ha)                 100         10       6
Carbon in disturbed vegetation (Mg C/ha)                    10         10       6
Time for vegetation to return from disturbed
     to primary state (yr)                                  25          2       2
Carbon in undisturbed soil (Mg C/ha)                       134         42      58
Minimum soil carbon (Mg C/ha)                              118         42      58
Time to minimum soil carbon (yr)                            20         20      20
Time for soil carbon to return from minimum
     to primary state (yr)                                  40         18      40
Fraction of harvested vegetation assigned
     to decay pools:
          1-yr                                               0.30       0.48    0.48
         10-yr                                               0.35       0.00    0.00
        100-yr                                               0.00       0.00    0.00
       1000-yr                                               0.02       0.02    0.02
Fraction of harvested vegetation left to decay on-site       0.33       0.50    0.50
Rate constant for on-site decay (per year)                   0.50       0.40    0.30


South and Central America Shifting Cultivation Response Curve:
                                                                               
                                                                  Tropical
                                                                  seasonal  Tropical
                                                                    forest  woodland

Carbon in undisturbed vegetation (Mg C/ha)                          140        55
Carbon in disturbed vegetation (Mg C/ha)                             15         5
Carbon in recovered vegetation (Mg C/ha)                             65        20
Time for vegetation to return from disturbed
     to recovered state (yr)                                         17         6
Carbon in undisturbed soil (Mg C/ha)                                 98        69
Minimum soil carbon (Mg C/ha)                                        83        59
Time to minimum soil carbon (yr)                                      2         2
Carbon in recovered soil (Mg C/ha)                                   91        64
Fraction of harvested vegetation assigned to decay pools:
          1-yr                                                        0.30      0.30
         10-yr                                                        0.35      0.35
        100-yr                                                        0.00      0.00
       1000-yr                                                        0.02      0.02
Fraction of harvested vegetation left to decay on-site                0.33      0.33
Rate constant for on-site decay (per year)                            0.40      0.30


South and Central America Logging Response Curve:

                                                                Tropical        Warm
                                                                seasonal  coniferous
                                                                  forest      forest

Carbon in undisturbed vegetation (Mg C/ha)                         140         168
Carbon in crops (Mg C/ha)                                            3          15
Carbon in slash (Mg C/ha)                                           15          25
Carbon in disturbed vegetation (Mg C/ha)                           122         128
Time for vegetation to return from disturbed
     to primary state (yr)                                           6          13
Fraction of harvested vegetation assigned to decay pools:
     1-yr                                                            0.0         0.0
    10-yr                                                            0.0         0.1
   100-yr                                                            1.0         0.9
  1000-yr                                                            0.0         0.0
Rate constant for on-site decay (per year)                           0.4         0.4


South and Central America Forest Plantation Response Curve:

                                                                            Tropical
                                                                            seasonal
                                                                              forest

Carbon in undisturbed vegetation (Mg C/ha)                                     140
Carbon in disturbed vegetation (Mg C/ha)                                        10
Carbon in undisturbed soil (Mg C/ha)                                            98
Minimum soil carbon (Mg C/ha)                                                   87
Time to minimum soil carbon (yr)                                                 2
Fraction of harvested vegetation assigned to decay pools:
          1-yr                                                                   0
         10-yr                                                                   0
        100-yr                                                                   0
       1000-yr                                                                   0
Fraction of harvested vegetation left to decay on-site                           1
Rate constant for on-site decay (per year)                                       0.4


Tropical Africa (the following values replace the data in  files taf_re.* in
Houghton and Hackler
1995)

Tropical Africa Clearing response curve:

                                                                      Closed    Open
                                                                      Forest  forest

Carbon in undisturbed vegetation (Mg C/ha)                            136      30
Carbon in recovered vegetation (Mg C/ha)                              136      30
Carbon in crops (Mg C/ha)                                              15      15
Time for vegetation to return from disturbed to recovered state (yr)   30      30
Carbon in undisturbed soil (Mg C/ha)                                  100      50
Carbon in recovered soil (Mg C/ha)                                    100      50
Soil carbon after initial rapid change (Mg C/ha)                       80      40
Minimum soil carbon (Mg C/ha)                                          75      37
Duration of initial rapid change (yr)                                   1       1
Time to minimum soil carbon (yr)                                        5       5
Time for soil carbon to return from minimum to recovered state (yr)    30      30
Fraction of harvested vegetation assigned to decay pools:
          1-yr                                                          0.40    0.40
         10-yr                                                          0.27    0.27
        100-yr                                                          0.00    0.00
       1000-yr                                                          0.00    0.00
Fraction of harvested vegetation left to decay on-site                  0.33    0.33
Rate constant for on-site decay (per year)                              0.50    0.30


North America, China, Europe, Pacific Developed Region, and North Africa and the
Middle
East (the following values replace the data in  files tem_re.* in Houghton and
Hackler 1995)

North America, China, Europe, Pacific Developed Region, and North Africa and the
Middle East 
Clearing Response Curve:

                                        Tropical Tropical Temperate Temperate        
                                           moist seasonal evergreen deciduous Boreal 
                                          forest   forest    forest    forest forest 

Carbon in undisturbed
     vegetation (Mg C/ha)                 200      160       160       135     90    
Carbon in recovered
     vegetation (Mg C/ha)                 150      120       120       100     68    
Carbon in crops (Mg C/ha)                   5        5         5         5      5    
Time for vegetation to return from
     disturbed to recovered state (yr)     50       50        50        50     50    
Carbon in undisturbed soil (Mg C/ha)      117      117       134       134    206    
Carbon in recovered soil (Mg C/ha)        103      103       127       127    185    
Soil carbon after initial rapid
     change (Mg C/ha)                      94       94       107       107    164    
Minimum soil carbon (Mg C/ha)              88       88       101       101    155    
Duration of initial rapid change (yr)       3        3        15        15     50    
Time to minimum soil carbon (yr)           15       15        30        30     50    
Time for soil carbon to return from
     minimum to recovered state (yr)       15       15        40        40     35    
Fraction of harvested vegetation
     assigned to decay pools:
          1-yr                              0.40     0.40      0.40      0.40   0.40 
         10-yr                              0.27     0.27      0.20      0.20   0.20 
        100-yr                              0.00     0.00      0.07      0.07   0.07 
       1000-yr                              0.00     0.00      0.00      0.00   0.00 
Fraction of harvested vegetation left
     to decay on-site                       0.33     0.33      0.33      0.33   0.33


North America, China, Europe, Pacific Developed Region, and North Africa and the
Middle East
Clearing Response Curve (continued)

                                      Tropical  Temperate
                                     woodland/  woodland/  Tropical Temperate Desert
                                     shrubland  shrubland grassland grassland  scrub

Carbon in undisturbed
     vegetation (Mg C/ha)                27         27        18         7      3
Carbon in recovered
     vegetation (Mg C/ha)                27         27        18         7      3
Carbon in crops (Mg C/ha)                 5          5         5         3      1
Time for vegetation to return from
     disturbed to recovered
     state (yr)                          25         50         5        10     10
Carbon in undisturbed soil (Mg C/ha)     69         69         42      189     58
Carbon in recovered soil (Mg C/ha)       69         69         42      189     58
Soil carbon after initial rapid
     change (Mg C/ha)                    55         55         34      151     80
Minimum soil carbon (Mg C/ha)            52         52         32      142     87
Duration of initial rapid change (yr)     3         15          3       15      5
Time to minimum soil carbon (yr)         15         30         15       30     10
Time for soil carbon to return from
     minimum to recovered state (yr)     15         45         15       45     10
Fraction of harvested vegetation
     assigned to decay pools:
          1-yr                            0.40       0.40       0.50     0.50   0.50
         10-yr                            0.10       0.10       0.00     0.00   0.00
        100-yr                            0.00       0.00       0.00     0.00   0.00
       1000-yr                            0.00       0.00       0.00     0.00   0.00
Fraction of harvested vegetation left
     to decay on-site                     0.50       0.50       0.50     0.50   0.50


North America, China, Europe, Pacific Developed Region, and North Africa and the
Middle East 
Logging Response Curve:

                                              Tropical  Temperate  Temperate
                                                 moist  evergreen  deciduous  Boreal
                                                forest     forest     forest  forest

Carbon in undisturbed vegetation (Mg C/ha)         200        160        135      90
Carbon in recovered vegetation (Mg C/ha)           150        120        100      68
Carbon in disturbed vegetation (Mg C/ha)             0          0          0       0
Time for vegetation to return from disturbed
     to recovered state (yr)                        50         50         50      50
Carbon in undisturbed soil (Mg C/ha)               117        134        134     206
Carbon in recovered soil (Mg C/ha)                 103        127        127     185
Minimum soil carbon (Mg C/ha)                       76        108        108     165
Carbon in crops (Mg C/ha)                           73         42         51      17
Carbon in slash (Mg C/ha)                          127        118         84      73
Time to minimum soil carbon (yr)                     5         10         10      15
Time for soil carbon to return from minimum
     to recovered state (yr)                        45         40         40      35


Partitioning of logging products (from all ecosystem types) into decay pools by
region and year:

China

                                                      Year                       
Decay pool                         1700     1875     1900     1925     1950     1980

1-yr                               0.90     0.90     0.90     0.86     0.80     0.75
10-yr                              0.04     0.04     0.04     0.06     0.08     0.10
100-yr                             0.06     0.06     0.06     0.08     0.12     0.15
1000-yr                            0.00     0.00     0.00     0.00     0.00     0.00


Europe

                                                      Year                       
Decay pool                         1700     1875     1900     1925     1950     1980

1-yr                                0.50     0.50     0.50    0.48     0.42     0.18
10-yr                               0.20     0.20     0.20    0.21     0.23     0.33
100-yr                              0.30     0.30     0.30    0.31     0.35     0.49
1000-yr                             0.00     0.00     0.00    0.00     0.00     0.00


North Africa and the Middle East       

                                                      Year                       
Decay pool                         1700     1875     1900     1925     1950     1980

1-yr                               0.90     0.90     0.90     0.87     0.75     0.63
10-yr                              0.04     0.04     0.04     0.05     0.10     0.15
100-yr                             0.06     0.06     0.06     0.08     0.15     0.22
1000-yr                            0.00     0.00     0.00     0.00     0.00     0.00


North America

                                                      Year                       
Decay pool                         1700     1875     1900     1925     1950     1980

1-yr                               0.50     0.44     0.40     0.30     0.20     0.04
10-yr                              0.20     0.22     0.24     0.28     0.32     0.38
100-yr                             0.30     0.34     0.36     0.42     0.48     0.58
1000-yr                            0.00     0.00     0.00     0.00     0.00     0.00


Pacific Developed Region

                                                      Year                       
Decay pool                         1700     1875     1900     1925     1950     1980

1-yr                               0.81     0.81     0.81     0.81     0.42     0.27
10-yr                              0.08     0.08     0.08     0.08     0.23     0.29
100-yr                             0.11     0.11     0.11     0.11     0.35     0.44
1000-yr                            0.00     0.00     0.00     0.00     0.00     0.00