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A Database of Herbaceous Vegetation Responses to Elevated Atmospheric CO2 (NDP-073)
Michael H. Jones
Peter S. Curtis
Department of Evolution, Ecology, and Organismal Biology
The Ohio State University
Prepared by Robert M. Cushman and Antoinette L. Brenkert
Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center
Environmental Sciences Division
Publication No. 4909
Date Published: November 1999
Prepared by the
Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center
OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY
Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6290
LOCKHEED MARTIN ENERGY RESEARCH CORP.
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY
under contract DE-AC05-96OR22464
1. Background Information
2. Applications of the Data
3. Data Limitations and Restrictions
4. Data Checks and Processing Performed by CDIAC
5. Instructions for Obtaining the Data and Documentation
7. Listing of Files Provided
8. Description of the Documentation File
9. Description, Format, and Partial Listings of the ASCII Data Files
10. Description and Format of the Lotus 1-2-3 Binary Spreadsheet Files
11. SAS and Fortran Codes to Access the Data
Appendix A: Species Included in Database
Appendix B: Full Listing of Refs.dat
Appendix C: Full Listing of Comments.dat
Jones, M. H., P. S. Curtis, R. M. Cushman, and A. L. Brenkert. 1999. A Database of Herbaceous Vegetation Responses to Elevated Atmospheric CO2. ORNL/CDIAC-124, NDP-073. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A.
To perform a statistically rigorous meta-analysis of research results on the response by herbaceous vegetation to increased atmospheric CO2 levels, a multiparameter database of responses was compiled from the published literature. Seventy-eight independent CO2-enrichment studies, covering 53 species and 26 response parameters, reported mean response, sample size, and variance of the response (either as standard deviation or standard error). An additional 43 studies, covering 25 species and 6 response parameters, did not report variances. This numeric data package accompanies the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center's (CDIAC's) NDP- 072, which provides similar information for woody vegetation.
This numeric data package contains a 30-field data set of CO2- exposure experiment responses by herbaceous plants (as both a flat ASCII file and a spreadsheet file), files listing the references to the CO2-exposure experiments and specific comments relevant to the data in the data sets, and this documentation file (which includes SAS and Fortran codes to read the ASCII data file; SAS is a registered trademark of the SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, North Carolina 27511).
The data files and this documentation are available without charge on a variety of media and via the Internet from CDIAC.Keywords: carbon dioxide, meta-analysis, vegetation
To perform a statistically rigorous synthesis of research results on the response by vegetation to increased atmospheric CO2 levels, a multiparameter database of herbaceous-plant responses was compiled from the published literature (Wand et al. 1999; Jones et al. submitted). Seventy-eight independent CO2-enrichment studies, covering 53 species and 26 response parameters, reported mean response, sample size, and variance of the response. An additional 43 studies, covering 25 species and six response parameters, did not report variances. The plant species included in the database are listed in Appendix A. Meta-analytical methods (Cooper and Hedges 1994; Gurevitch and Hedges 1993; Gurevitch et al. 1992) have been applied to part of this database (Wand et al. 1999). This numeric data package accompanies the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center's (CDIAC's) NDP- 072 (Curtis et al. 1999), which provides similar information for woody vegetation.
Physiological "acclimation" or "downward regulation" of photosynthetic rates, stomatal conductance, dark respiration, and water-use efficiency of plants exposed to elevated CO2 levels can be analyzed according to the following definitions. "Acclimation" is in general defined as "diminishing enhancement of photosynthesis by elevated CO2 with time" (Mousseau and Saugier 1992). "Downward regulation" can be defined as "the initial stimulation of enhanced photosynthesis and growth by atmospheric enrichment eroding with time" (Idso and Kimball 1992). The phenomenon is also called "downward acclimation": "following prolonged exposure to high CO2, photosynthetic capacity measured at either elevated or ambient CO2 partial pressure falls to below that of plants exposed only to ambient CO2" (Curtis and Teeri 1992).
Data were compiled for the database according to the following guidelines. The durations of experimental exposures are always reported. When more than one elevated- CO2 treatment level is reported, only the level that is approximately twice the ambient level is included. For photosynthetic rates, stomatal conductance, dark respiration, and water use efficiency, only final- exposure experiment results are included; multiple measurements over time for the same plant are not. For acclimatory responses, only data for (1) plants grown at ambient CO2 levels and measured at elevated CO2 levels and (2) plants grown at elevated CO2 levels and measured at elevated CO2 levels are included.
This database was produced to support a meta-analysis of the effects of elevated CO2 on herbaceous vegetation (Wand et al. 1999), and it was formatted accordingly. For other applications, the user should be aware that the data may be reported in more than one unit for a given variable (e.g., aboveground weight is reported in units of grams, grams per square meter, grams per plant, grams per pot, kilograms per hectare, kilograms per square meter, milligrams, milligrams per plant, and tons per hectare); this is not a problem for meta- analysis, but for other applications the user may need to convert the data to consistent units. The effects of environmental factors (e.g., nutrient levels, light intensity, temperature), stress treatments (e.g., drought, heat, ozone), and the effects of experimental conditions (e.g., duration of CO2 exposure, pot size, type of CO2 exposure facility) on plant responses to elevated CO2 levels can be explored with this database.
In many papers, the data were reported graphically rather than numerically. In such cases, values reported in the database were digitized from the printed figures and may therefore be less accurate.
Some of the standard deviations (and derived standard errors and coefficients of variation) in this database may be incorrect. When a "standard deviation" was reported in a published paper, it was not generally possible to verify whether this value was a sample standard deviation or the standard deviation of the mean, which is sometimes used synonymously with standard error (i.e., standard error of the mean). Unfortunately, it was not possible to settle this issue definitively without personally contacting the authors of the published papers. In all cases, where not specified or known to be otherwise, a reported standard deviation was taken to be the sample standard deviation. If this assumption was in error, then the standard deviation, standard error, and coefficient of variation reported in this database would be incorrect.
In some cases an error bar in a figure or confidence interval in a table was not specified as standard deviation or standard error. If it was not possible to determine whether the reported variability was standard deviation or standard error, a missing-value indicator (-9.99) is entered under standard deviation and standard error for that observation.
In some cases (e.g., in long-term exposures), the duration of CO2 exposure was approximated.As noted in Sect. 2, various units may be used for the same parameter, so the user should apply caution in integrating observations from more than one paper. Units are reported in the database.
An important part of the data-packaging process at CDIAC involves the quality assurance (QA) of data before distribution. To guarantee data of the highest possible quality, CDIAC performs extensive QA checks, examining the data for completeness, reasonableness, and accuracy, through close cooperation with the data contributor.
All entries in the data file were visually inspected for reasonableness, and selected entries were spot-checked against the original publications.
The following paragraphs describe the additional data checks that were performed in the preparation of this numeric data package and the resulting revisions to the database.
Excel (a registered trademark of the Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, Washington 98052) was used to convert the spreadsheets provided by the principal investigators to Lotus 1-2- 3 (a registered trademark of the Lotus Development Corporation, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142) format. Two separate databases, one including observations for which standard deviation or standard error was reported ("weighted") and the other consisting of observations without reported standard deviation or standard error ("unweighted"), were merged into one.
Lists of entries for each field were generated to identify possible spelling variants, typographical errors, or order-of-magnitude errors in the original literature or in the compilation and data entry of the database.
Where a cited paper reported standard error, standard deviation was calculated and tabulated (such occurrences are indicated in the database with a SDC flag-code).
The ratio of elevated/ambient for X, SE, SD, and N was calculated for all parameters and all observations; then all observations were ranked on the basis of each ratio, whenever possible (all these variables were not present for all observations), to identify suspect values (defined as jumps of greater than twofold between adjacent observations). The ranked ratios of X_ELEV/X_AMB ranged without abrupt jumps from 0.19 to 3.5, except for the ratio for variable AGWT reported from PAP_NO 2440 (X_ELEV/X_AMB = 9.2); the individual values for X_ELEV and X_AMB were verified in that publication (they were digitized from Fig. 5). The ranked ratios of SE_ELEV/SE_AMB and SD_ELEV/SD_AMB ranged without abrupt jumps from 0.05 to 18, except for the ratios of 0 for variables TOTWT, RGR, PN, and GS reported from PAP_NO 2363; the individual values for which standard error was reported as 0 were verified in that publication. The ranked ratios of CV*_ELEV/CV*_AMB ranged without abrupt jumps from 0.07 to 29.25, except for the same observations for PAP_NO 2363, for which the reported standard error of 0 was verified. The ranked ratios of N_ELEV/N_AMB ranged without abrupt jumps from 0.4 to 1.43. Thus, this analysis did not reveal any aberrant and unverifiable observations in the databases.
To search for possible confusion between standard error and standard deviation (see Sect. 3), coefficients of variation CV* (after Sokal & Rohlf 1981) were calculated, whenever possible, for each PARAM from each mean, standard deviation, and sample size. It was expected that, for any PARAM, an anomalously low coefficient of variation for a given observation might signal that a standard error was mis-labeled as a standard deviation. The database was sorted by PARAM, then by CV*_AMB and CV*_ELEV, and was inspected for jumps of greater than fourfold between adjacent observations. Where the standard error, rather than standard deviation, was reported in the cited publication, no mislabeling should have been possible. This analysis identified two pairs of adjacent observations that warranted further scrutiny. The following list contains those pairs of adjacent observations, along with the results of the checks.
PAP_NO = 3034
PARAM = PN
SPECIES = Echinochloa crusgalli
SOURCE = F1
X_ELEV = 44.400
SE_ELEV = 0.100
CV*_ELEV = 0.694
PAP_NO = 2723
PARAM = PN
SPECIES = Poa alpina
SOURCE = F4
X_ELEV = 40.120
SE_ELEV = 0.505
CV*_ELEV = 2.955
Data for both of the above observations were verified in the original publications./p>
PAP_NO = 2184
PARAM = TILLERS
SPECIES = Phleum pratense
SOURCE = T2
X_ELEV = 726.000
SE_ELEV = 52.000
CV*_ELEV = 28.203
PAP_NO = 2717
PARAM = TILLERS
SPECIES = Bromus erectus
SOURCE = F1
X_ELEV = 4.590
SE_ELEV = 0.400
CV*_ELEV = 129.991
Data for both of the above observations were verified in the original publications. However, the error bars in Fig. 1 of PAP_NO 2717 were not labeled as to their meaning; they were assumed to represent standard error (see Sect. 3).
- Cooper, H., and L. V. Hedges. 1994. The Handbook of Research Synthesis. Russell Sage Foundation, New York.
- Curtis, P. S., and J. A. Teeri. 1992. Seasonal responses of leaf gas exchange to elevated carbon dioxide in Populus grandidentata. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 22:1320-1325.
- Curtis, P. S., R. M. Cushman, and A. L. Brenkert. 1999. A Database of Woody Vegetation Responses to Elevated Atmospheric CO2. ORNL/CDIAC-120, NDP- 072. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A.
- Gurevitch, J., and L. V. Hedges. 1993. Meta-analysis: Combining the results of independent experiments. Pages 378-398 in S. M. Scheiner and J. Gurevitch, editors. Design and Analysis of Ecological Experiments. Chapman and Hall, New York.
- Gurevitch, J., L. L. Morrow, A. Wallace, and J. S. Walsch. 1992. A meta- analysis of competition in field experiments. American Naturalist 140:539-572.
- Idso, S. B., and B. A. Kimball. 1992. Effects of atmospheric CO2 enrichment on photosynthesis, respiration, and growth of sour orange trees. Plant Physiology 99:341-343.
- Jones, M. H., P. S. Curtis, and E. A. Kellogg. Patterns of response to elevated CO2 in the grasses (Poaceae). Submitted to The American Naturalist.
- Mousseau, M., and B. Saugier. 1992. The direct effect of increased CO2 on gas exchange and growth of forest tree species. Journal of Experimental Botany 43:1121-1130.
- Sokal, R. R., and F. J. Rohlf. 1981. Biometry. W. H. Freeman and Company, New York.
- Wand, S. J. E., G. F. Midgley, M. H. Jones, and P. S. Curtis. 1999. Responses of wild C4 and C3 grass (Poaceae) species to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration: a test of current theories and perceptions. Global Change Biology 5:723-741 (available online via Blackwell Science Ltd.'s Synergy subscription service).
The database consists of seven files (see Table 1), including this documentation file. The data files (ndp073.dat and ndp073.wk1), reference files (refs.dat and refs.wk1), and comment files (comments.dat and comments.wk1) are available in two formats: as flat ASCII files and as binary spreadsheet files (in Lotus 1-2-3 format, but readable by other spreadsheet programs).
The 30-field ndp073.dat and ndp073.wk1 files contain data (954 observations in all) relevant for CO2-exposure meta-analysis for herbaceous plants. The ndp073.dat file can be read into SAS or Fortran programs, using the access codes provided in Sect. 11 of this numeric data package. The ndp073.dat file can also be converted into a spreadsheet file for processing, although it is simpler to use the corresponding ndp073.wk1 spreadsheet file provided. The refs.dat file (included in this report as Appendix B) and refs.wk1 file list the selected literature represented in the data file (119 references), and the comments.dat file (included in this report as Appendix C) and comments.wk1 file provide additional information about the studies, beyond what appears in the ndp073.dat and ndp073.wk1 data files. The reference numbers in the refs.dat, refs.wk1, comments.dat, and comments.wk1 files correspond to the paper numbers in the ndp073.dat and ndp073.wk1 data files.
The ndp073.txt (File 1) file is an ASCII text equivalent of this document.
Table 2 describes the format and contents of the ASCII data file ndp073.dat (File 2) distributed with this numeric data package. Table 2 also indicates the column in the corresponding spreadsheet file ndp073.wk1 in which each variable is found. The missing-value indicator in this database is the period (.), except for the real numeric fields SE_AMB, SD_AMB, CV*_AMB, SE_ELEV, SD_ELEV, and CV*_ELEV, in which the missing-value indicator is -9.99, and the integer numeric fields N_AMB and N_ELEV, in which the missing-value indicator is -9.
First two data records:
38AGWT G PLANT-1 TRITICUM AESTIVUM ANGIO GRASS_CC3 GRASS 330 660UL L-1 461.45 GC SEED H2O LO 10 ML PL-1 D-1 F4 3.61 -9.99 -9.99 -9.99 10 5.13 -9.99 -9.99 -9.99 10 . 38AGWT G PLANT-1 TRITICUM AESTIVUM ANGIO GRASS_CC3 GRASS 330 660UL L-1 371.45 GC SEED H2O CTL 40 ML PL-1 D-1 F4 2.98 -9.99 -9.99 -9.99 10 3.97 -9.99 -9.99 -9.99 10 .
Last two data records:
3042PN UMOL M-2 S-1 ZEA MAYS ANGIO GRASS_CC4 GRASS 330 640UBAR 305 GH SEED FERT HI . F2 64.80 2.10 5.94 9.45 8 52.40 0.90 2.55 5.01 8 Y 3042PN UMOL M-2 S-1 ZEA MAYS ANGIO GRASS_CC4 GRASS 330 640UBAR 305 GH SEED FERT LO . F2 27.90 1.84 5.20 19.24 8 21.90 2.10 5.94 27.97 8 Y
Three Lotus 1-2-3 binary spreadsheet files (files 3, 5, and 7) contain the same information as the corresponding ASCII files (files 2, 4, and 6).
File ndp073.wk1 (File 3) corresponds to ASCII file ndp073.dat (File 2). Table 2, which describes the contents and format of ndp073.dat, also indicates the column of ndp073.wk1 in which each variable is found.
The following is SAS code to read file ndp073.dat:
*SAS data retrieval routine to read ndp073.dat; data ndp073; infile 'ndp073.dat'; input PAP_NO 6. @7 PARAM $char7. P_UNIT $ 14-27 GENUS $ 28-40 SPECIES $ 41-53 DIV1 $ 54-59 DIV2 $ 60-66 DIV3 $ 67-71 DIV4 $ 72-77 AMB $ 78-80 ELEV $ 81-84 CO2_UNIT $ 85-94 TIME $ 95-99 POT $ 100-112 MTHD $ 113-116 STOCK $ 117-125 XTRT $ 126-131 LEVEL $ 132-138 QUANT $ 139-155 SOURCE $ 156-161 X_AMB 162-169 SE_AMB 170-177 SD_AMB 178-185 CV_AMB 186-192 N_AMB 193-197 X_ELEV 198-206 SE_ELEV 207-213 SD_ELEV 214-221 CV_ELEV 222-229 N_ELEV 230-235 SDC $ 236-238 ; * In the above INPUT statement, the variables CV*_AMB and CV*_ELEV have been renamed CV_AMB and CV_ELEV, respectively.; proc print; run;
The following is Fortran code to read file ndp073.dat:
C *** Fortran program to read the file "ndp073.dat" C INTEGER PAP_NO, N_AMB, N_ELEV C REAL X_AMB, SE_AMB, SD_AMB, CV_AMB, X_ELEV, SE_ELEV, + SD_ELEV, CV_ELEV C CHARACTER PARAM*7, P_UNIT*14, GENUS*13, SPECIES*13, DIV1*6, + DIV2*7, DIV3*5, DIV4*6, AMB*3, ELEV*4, CO2_UNIT*10, + TIME*5, POT*13, MTHD*4, STOCK*9, XTRT*6, LEVEL*7, + QUANT*17, SOURCE*6, SDC*3 C OPEN (UNIT=1, FILE='ndp073.dat') C C Note that the variables CV*_AMB and CV*_ELEV have C been renamed CV_AMB and CV_ELEV, respectively C 10 READ (1,100,END=99) PAP_NO, PARAM, P_UNIT, GENUS, SPECIES, + DIV1, DIV2, DIV3, DIV4, AMB, ELEV, CO2_UNIT, TIME, POT, + MTHD, STOCK, XTRT, LEVEL, QUANT, SOURCE, X_AMB, SE_AMB, + SD_AMB, CV_AMB, N_AMB, X_ELEV, SE_ELEV, SD_ELEV, CV_ELEV, + N_ELEV, SDC C 100 FORMAT (I6,A7,A14,2A13,A6,A7,A5,A6,A3,A4,A10,A5,A13,A4,A9, + A6,A7,A17,A6,3F8.2,F7.2,I5,F9.2,F7.2,2F8.2,I6,A3) C GO TO 10 99 CLOSE (UNIT=1) STOP END
Appendix B: Full Listing of refs.dat
The number at the beginning of each entry corresponds to PAP_NO, the cited paper number, as defined in Sect. 9.
38. Andre, M., and H. Du Cloux. 1993. Interaction of CO2 Enrichment and Water Limitations on Photosynthesis and Water-Use Efficiency in Wheat. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 31:103-112. 186. Drake, B. G. 1992. A Field Study of the Effects of Elevated CO2 on Ecosystem Processes in a Chesapeake Bay Wetland. Australian Journal of Botany 40:579-595. 488. Nie, D., H. He, M. B. Kirkham, and E. T. Kanemasu. 1992. Photosynthesis of a C3 Grass and a C4 Grass under Elevated CO2. Photosynthetica 26:189-198. 618. Ryle, G. J. A., C. E. Powell, and V. Tewson. 1992. Effect of elevated co2 on photosynthesis, respiration and growth of perennial ryegrass. Journal of Experimental Botany 43:811-818. 754. Ziska, L. H., and J. A. Bunce. 1993. Inhibition of Whole Plant Respiration by Elevated CO2 as Modified by Growth Temperature. Physiologia Plantarum 87:459-466. 765. Baker, J. T., L. H. Allen Jr., and K. J. Boote. 1992. Response of Rice to Carbon Dioxide and Temperature. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 60:153-166. 2066. Samarakoon, A. B., W. J. Muller, and R. M. Gifford. 1995. Transpiration and leaf area under elevated CO2: Effects of soil water status and genotype in wheat. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 22:33-44. 2119. Greer, D. H., W. A. Laing, and B. D. Campbell. 1995. Photosynthetic responses of thirteen pasture species to elevated CO2 and temperature. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 22:713-722. 2125. Baxter, R., M. Gantley, T. W. Ashenden, and J. F. Farrar. 1994. Effects of elevated carbon dioxide on three grass species from montane pasture. Journal of Experimental Botany 45:1267-1287. 2132. Rao, M. V., B. A. Hale, and D. P. Ormrod. 1995. Amelioration of ozone-induced oxidative damage in wheat plants grown under high carbon dioxide. Plant Physiology 109:421-432. 2133. Tuba, Z., K. Szente, and J. Koch. 1994. Response of photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, water use efficiency and production to long-term elevated CO2 in winter wheat. Journal of Plant Physiology 144:661-668. 2158. Gloser, J., and M. Bartak. 1994. Net photosynthesis, growth rate and biomass allocation in a rhizomatous grass Icalamagrostis epigejos grown at elevated CO2 concentration. Photosynthetica 30(1):143-150. 2159. Ziska, L. H., and J. A. Bunce. 1994. Increasing growth temperature reduces the stimulatory effect of elevated CO2 on photosynthesis or biomass in two perennial species. Physiologia Plantarum 91:183-190. 2168. Knapp, A. K., E. P. Hamerlynck, and C. E. Owensby. 1993. Photosynthetic and water relations responses to elevated CO2 in the C4 grass Andropogon geradii. International Journal of Plant Science 154(4):459-466. 2184. Saebo, A., and L. M. Mortensen. 1995. Growth and regrowth of Phleum pratense, Lolium perenne, Trifolium repens and Trifolium pratense at normal and elevated O2 concentration. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 55:29-35. 2192. Knapp, A. K., J. T. Fahnestock, and C. E. Owensby. 1994. Elevated atmospheric O2 alters stomatal responses to variable sunlight in a C4 grass. Plant, Cell and Environment 17:189-195. 2202. Wilsey, B. J., S. J. McNaughton, and J. S. Coleman. 1994. Will increases in atmospheric O2 affect regrowth following grazing in C4 grasses from tropical grasslands? Oecologia 99:141-144. 2208. Crush, J. R. 1994. Elevated atmospheric O2 concentration and rhizosphere nitrogen fixation in four forage plants. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research 37:455-463. 2211. Morgan, J. A., W. G. Knight, L. M. Dudley, and H. W. Hunt. 1994. Enhanced root system C-sink activity, water relations and aspects fo nutrient acquisistion in mycotrophic Bouteloua gracilis subjected to CO2 enrichment. Plant and Soil 165:139-146. 2227. Bowler, J. M., and M. C. Press. 1993. Growth responses of two contrasting upland grass species to elevated CO2 and nitrogen concentration. New Phytologist 124:515-522. 2229. Mitchell, R. A. C., V. J. Mitchell, S. P. Driscoll, J. Franklin, and D. W. Lawlor. 1993. Effects of increased CO2 concentration and temperature on growth and yield of winter wheat at two levels of nitrogen application. Plant, Cell and Environment 16:521-529. 2246. Baxter, R., T. W. Ashenden, T. H. Sparks, and J. F. Farrar. 1994. Effects of elevated carbon dioxide on three montane grass species. Journal of Experimental Botany 45 (272):305-315. 2300. Bassirirad, H., D. T. Tissue, J. F. Reynolds, and F. S. Chapin. 1996. Response of Eriophorum vaginatum to CO2 enrichment at different soil temperature: effects on growth, root respiration and PO-4 uptake kinetics. New Phytologist 133:423-430. 2312. Wilsey, B. J. 1996. Urea additions and defoliation affect plant responses to elevated CO2 in a C3 grassland from Yellowstone National Park. Oecologia 108:321-327. 2315. Casella, E., J. F. Soussana, and P. Loiseau. 1996. Long-term effects of CO2 enrichment and temperature increase on a temperate grass sward. 1. Productivity and water use. Plant and Soil 182:83-99. 2316. Soussana, J. F., E. Casella, and P. Loiseau. 1996. Long-term effects of CO2 enrichment and temperature increase on a temperate grass sward. 2. Plant nitrogen budgets and root fraction. Plant and Soil 182:101-114. 2329. Jones, M. B., M. Jongen, and T. Doyle. 1996. Effects of elevated carbon dioxide concentrations on agricultural grassland production. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 79:243-252. 2330. Stewart, J., and C. Potvin. 1996. Effects of elevated CO2 on an artificial grassland community: competition, invasion and neighbourhood area. Functional Ecology 10:157-166. 2337. Saebo, A., and L. M. Mortensen. 1996. The influence of elevated CO2 concentration on growth of seven grasses and one clover species in a cool maritime climate. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavia Section B-Sorland Plant Science 46:49-54. 2341. Schappi, B., and C. Korner. 1996. Growth responses of an alpine grassland to elevated CO2. Oecologia 105:43-52. 2342. Jackson, R. B., and H. L. Reynolds. 1996. Nitrate and ammonium uptake for single and mixed species communities grown at elevated CO2. Oecologia 105:74-80. 2345. Hakala, K., and T. Mela. 1996. The effects of prolonged exposure to elevated temperatures and elevated CO2 leveles on the growth, yield and dry matter partitioning of filed-sown meadow fescue. Agricultural and Food Science in Finland 5(3):285-298. 2347. Jackson, R. B., Y. Luo, Z. G. Cardon, O. E. Sala, C. B. Field, and H. A. Mooney. 1995. Photosynthesis, growth and density for the dominant species in a CO2 enriched grassland. Journal of Biogeography 22:221-225. 2350. Teughels, H., I. Nijs, P. Van Hecke, and I. Impens. 1995. Competition in a global change environment: The importance of different plant traits for competitive success. Journal of Biogeography 22:297-305. 2351. Campbell, B. D., W. A. Laing, D. H. Gree, J. R. Crush, H. Clark, D. Y. WIlliamson, and M. D. J. Given. 1995. Variation in grassland populations and species and the implications for community responses to elevated CO2. Journal of Biogeography 22:315-322. 2357. Chu, C. C., C. B. Field, and H. A. Mooney. 1996. Effects of CO2 and nutrient enrichment on tissue quality of two California annuals. Oecologia 107:433-440. 2358. Ferris, R., I. Niy, T. Bejaeghe, and I. Impens. 1996. Contrasting CO2 and temperature effects on leaf growth of perennial rye grass in spring and summer. Journal of Experimental Botany 47:1033-1043. 2362. Wheeler, T. R., G. R. Batts, R. H. Ellis, P. Hadley, and J. J. L. Morison. 1996. Growth and yield of winter wheat (Triticum aestium) crops in response to CO2 and temperature. Journal of Agricultural Science 127:37-48. 2363. Volin, J. C., and P. B. Reich. 1996. Interaction of elevated CO2 and O3 on growth, photosynthesis and respiration of three perennial species grown in low and high nitrogen. Physiologia Plantarum 97:674-684. 2364. Miglietta, F., A. Giuntoli, and M. Bindi. 1996. The effect of free air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) and soil nitrogen availability on the photosynthetic capacity of wheat. Photosynthesis Research 47:281-290. 2366. Ziska, L. H., W. Weerakoon, O. S. Namuco, and R. Pamplona. 1996. Influence of nitrogen on the elevated CO2 response in field-grown rice. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 23:45-52. 2367. Saebo, A., and L. M. Mortensen. 1996. Growth, morphology and yield of wheat, barley and oats grown at elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration in a cool maritime climate. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 57:9-15. 2369. Ziska, L. H., P. A. Manalo, and R. A. Ordonez. 1996. Intraspecific variaiton in the response of rice (Oryza sativa L) to increased CO2 and temeprature: growth and yield response of seventeen cultivars. Journal of Experimental Botany 47:1353-1359. 2372. Nijs, I., H. Teughels, H. Blum, G. Hendrey, and I. Impens. 1996. Simulation of climate change with infrared heaters reduces the productivity of Lolium perenne L in summer. Environmental and Experimental Botany 36:271-280. 2379. Veisz, O., N. Harnos, L. Szunies, and T. Tischner. 1996. Overwintering of winter cereals in Hungary in the case of global warming. Euphytica 92:249-253. 2383. Nijs, I., and I. Impens. 1996. Effects of elevated CO2 concentration and climate-warming on photosynthesis during winter in Lolium perenne. Journal of Experimental Botany 47:915-924. 2387. Leadley, P. W., and J. Stocklin. 1996. Effects of elevated CO2 on model calcareous grasslands: Community, species, and genotype responses. Global Change Biology 2:389-397. 2395. Tuba, Z., K. Szente, Z. Nagy, Z. 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Appendix C: Full Listing of comments.dat
The number at the beginning of each entry corresponds to PAP_NO, the cited paper number, as defined in Sect. 9.
Listed are paper number (PAP_NO, as defined in Sect. 9.) CO2 exposure facility light temperature watering humidity nutrient interacting treatment biome location, and comments. Abbreviations are as described in the body of this report for data files ndp073.dat and ndp073.wk1. 38 GC 600+/-90 UE M-2 S-1 14/10 24/18 40 OR 10 ML PL-1 D-1 0.588235294 HOAGLAND'S H2O GRASS EU 186 OTC AMB AMB AMB AMB AMB NONE CO2 ONLY WETL NA 488 GH AMBIENT AMBIENT FIELD CAPACITY OR NONE NONE CO2 AND WATER GRASS NA 2ND YEAR; NO TEMP DATA; FIELD PLANTS. 618 GC AMB 12H 20/15 C (DAY/NIGHT) WW AMB NITRATE' SOLUTION NONE GRASS EU . 754 GC 0.6 MMOL M-2 S-1 14 H "15, 20, 25, 30 DEG C CONSTANT DAY/NIGHT" WW >50 % COMPLETE NUTRIENT SOLUTION ADDED DAILY TEMP MEAD NA MAINTENANCE RESPIRATION RECORDED HERE. GROWTH RESPIRATION ALSO REPORTED ONE GC PER CO2 TREATMENT 765 GC AMB AMB . WW . . TEMP GRASS_C NA CONTROL: 28/21/25 C; HI: 40/33/37 C 2066 GH 24.8 MOL M-2 D-1 16 H 20/14 . . COMPLETE FERTILIZER ADDED H2O GRASS_C AU TWO VARIETIES USED 2119 GC 700 UMOL M-2 S-1 1/12/00 12/7; 18/13; 28/23 WW 0.4/0.3 +- 0.05 KPA VPD HALF-STRENGTH HOAGLAND'S TEMP GRASS AU "USABLE DATA ON 4 SPP ONLY, FOR PN" 2125 OTC AMB AMB AMB WW DAILY FC AMB 0.2 MOL M-3 N AND 0.05 MOL M-3 P CO2 ONLY GRASS EU "OTHER NUTRIENT DATA, EFFICIENCIES - P," 2132 GC 500 UMOL M-2 S-1 14/10 25/18 WW 50-70 HOAGLAND'S ALTERNATE DAYS O3 GRASS NA 2133 OTC AMB AMB AMB . . NPK APPLIED . GRASS_C EU 2158 GC 200 UMOL M-2 S-1 16 H 220 WW 0.8 SURPLUS NUTRIENTS NONE BOREAL EU "1 GC AT EACH CO2 LEVEL. QY, RHZWT, LWR, LAR" 2159 GC .6 MMOL M-25-1 14H "15,20,25,30" WW >50% """COMPLETE"" IN DAILY WATER" TEMP GRASS NA 2168 OTC AMBIENT AMBIENT AMBIENT AMBIENT AMBIENT AMBIENT NONE GRASS NA 1991 PRECIPITATION: 17.1 CM; 1992 PRECIPITATION: 26.8 CM; SAMPLE SIZE INFERRED FROM DESIGN. LFY.MD 2184 OTC AMBIENT 15-18 12-Nov AMB AND DRIP . ADDED WITH DRIP WATER; AMT NOT STATED HARVEST GRASS EU CLIPPED TO 5CM AT EACH HARVEST 2192 OTC AMB AMB AMB AMB AMB . CO2 GRASS NA "DATA USED FROM LAST MEASUREMENT PRIOR TO SHADING, F2." 2202 GC 725-890 UE . . WW . HOAGLAND'S; 2 G/M2 N WEEKLY CLIPPING TO 5 CM GRASS AF C4; SPOROBOLUS KENTROPHYLLUS; ADDT'L LF NUTRIENTS AVAILABLE IN T1 2208 GC 700 UMOL M-2 12 H . WW AMB FERT TEMP GRASS_C NA THERE ARE TWO LOLIUM HYBRIDS (2N AND 4N). EACH ONE WAS TREATED AS A SPECIES. 2211 GH ~900 UMOL M-2 S-1 14/10 25/16 WW 35/90 NONE NONE GRASS NA 2227 GC 600 UMOL M-2 S-1 AT SEEDLING HT 15/9 20/15 WW 65/70 0.8 NM NH4NO3 + 50% LONG ASHTON SOLUTION "HI N, LOW N" GRASS EU 2229 GC AMB . +4C . . HI/LOW TEMP/FERT GRASS_C EU 2246 OTC AMBIENT AMBIENT AMBIENT WW AMBIENT "WEEKLY 1/5 MODIFIED LONG ASHTON- 0.2 MOL M-3 N, 0.05 MOL M-3 P" NONE GRASS EU "NAR, LAR, LWR" 2300 GC 800 UMOL/M2S ACTIVE RADIATION 18 H 15 C WATERED DAILY TO SATURATION . HALF-STRENGTH MODIFIED HOAGLAND SOLUTION WITH AMMONIUM NITRATE AND P CONCENTRATION OF 32 PPM "SOIL TEMPERATURE (5,15, AND 25 C)" TUNDRA NA THIS STUDY FOCUSES ON THE EFFECTS OF SOIL TEMPERATURE. RATE OF PO4 ABSORPTION WAS LEFT OUT. 2312 GC 615 UE (603-621) 23/11 100 ML EACH 3 D NOT CONTROLLED C= HOAGLAND'S T=HOAGLAND'S + UREA (40 G/M2) "UREA, CLIPPING" GRASS NA RINSED SAND; CONTROLS HAD HOAGLAND'S 2315 GH AMB/SEASONAL AMB/SEASONAL AMB/SEASONAL SEASONAL; SUMMER WW/DEFICIT . N-= 160 KG/HA YR; N+=530 KG/HA YR "N HI, LO" GRASS EU 2 YR STUDY; MICROCLIMATE DETAILS AVAIL. PKS ALSO APPLIED. DATA USED FROM SUMMER DROUGHT ONLY. 2316 GH AMB AMB AMB IRRIGATION AT AMB LEVELS AMB 160 OR 530 KG N HA-1 YR-1 FERT GRASS EU "PLASTIC TUNNELS. SWARDS, SOWN. PERIODIC CLIPPING OF ALL PLOTS." 2329 OTC REDUCED ~20% AMB "AMB + 1-2 DAY, 0-1 NIGHT" WW . NPK; 600 KG N/HA FOR SEASON CLIPPING GRASS EU SOWN IN GROUND. DATA FROM 2 GROWING SEASONS. CO2 TMNT YR-ROUND 2330 OTC and GC "OTC= AMBIENT, GC NOT AVAILABLE" "OTC=AMBIENT, GC=NOT AVAILABLE" "OTC= AMBIENT, GC= FOLLOWED AMBIENT" "OTC= AMBIENT, GC= EVERY 1-3 DAYS" "OTC= AMBIENT, GC= NOT AVAILABLE" GROWTH CHAMBERS; 5-10-15 NPK PLUS MICRONUTRIENTS. 2 ML/H EVERY TWO WEEKS COMPETITION AND METHOD (OTC AND GC) GRASS NA "GC (PH = 6.5) PHOTOPERIOD, LIGHT AND HUMIDITY ARE REPORTED IN WANT, LECHOWICZ AND POTWIN (1994). COMPETING SPECIES (TRIFOLIUM REPENS, POA PRATENSIS, PHLEUM PRATENSE, AGROSTIS STOLONIFERA) NO INDIVIDUAL POTS." 2337 OTC AMB AMB AMB; X=11.3 DRIP AMB "YES, UNKNOWN" NONE MEAD EU COMMON SPP + CULTIVARS; NORWAY; MARITIME 2341 OTC AMB AMB AMB AMB/WW AMB NPK 1.5:1:1.5; =40 KG N HA-1 Y-1 "CO2, NUTRIENTS" EU 3 YR EXP. OTCS UP 98-108 D Y-1. SOME DATA ALSO FROM YEARS 1 & 2 2342 OTC AMBIENT AMBIENT AMBIENT AMBIENT AMBIENT "N, P, K 20 G M-2, 120 DAY TIME-RELEASE OSMOCOTE" "ADDITIONAL NUTRIENTS N, P, K" GRASS NA MONOCULTURES OF SIX SPECIES AND ONE MIXED COMMUNITY. SERPENTIME SOIL 2345 otc amb AMR AMB; AMB +3 WW . NPK + NUTRIENTS TEMP GRASS EU OTCS PLACED IN GH FOR WARMING 2347 OTC AMB AMB AMB AMB AMB NONE CO2 ONLY GRASS NA JASPER RIDGE 2350 GH AMB AMB 17 WW . 7 G M-2 N; 5 G M-2 P; 7 G M-2 K CLIPPING EVERY 4 WK GRASS EU "ALSO INCLUDED TEMP, CO2 X TEMP, MIXTURES OF SPP" 2351 GC 700 UMOL M-2 S-1 12 12/7; 18/13; 28/23 WW . HALF-STRENGTH HOAGLAND'S GX D-1 TEMP GRASS AU GROWN IN STERILE SAND 2357 OTC AMB AMB AMB AMB AMB OSMOCOTE: 20 G M NUTRIENTS GRASS NA JASPER RIDGE 2358 GH AMB; 640 UMOL M-2 S-1 AMB; 640 UMOL M-2 S-1 13-26 WW 0.08 13 G N M-2; 3.18 G P M-2; 10.61 G K M-2 TEMP (+4) GRASS EU GERMINATION IN POTS IN FIELD; CO2 BEGAN AFTER ~6.5 MONTHS 2362 GH AMB AMB 13;10 WW . NOT LIMITING NONE GRASS EU TUNNELS = GH 2363 GC 552 UMOL M-2 S-1 14 H 26/21 WW 60-70% HALF STRENGTH HOAGLAND'S; N=6 OR .5 mM O3 + FERT GRASS NA "OZONE = 3 +/- .3, 92 +/- .4 nMOL MOL-1; FERT = 6 OR .5 nM N. MACRONUTRIENTS SAME FOR HI/LO FERT TMNT." 2364 FACE AMB . . . . . . GRASS_C EU MINIFACE 2366 OTC 89% OF AMB AMB 32 / 24.9 WW . . FERT GRASS_C AS NO SUPPLEMENTAL N 2367 OTC AMB AMB AMB WW . IRRIGATED WITH NUTRIENT ENRICHED WATER NONE GRASS_C EU . 2369 GH AMB AMB 29/21 OR 37/29 WW 70 +/- 5 PROVIDED WETL WETL AS 29/21= CTL; 37/29 = HI TEMP (PC.1354). 17 CULTIVARS TREATED AS REPS 2372 FACE AMB AMB "AMB/AMB+2.5, 18-30" WW AMB 7 G N M-2 TEMP GRASS EU "TEMP INCREASE USING INFRA-RED LAMPS ALL MATERIAL CLIPPED PRIOR TO START OF TEMP TMT. EFFECTIVE CO2 DURATION USED. 12- AGWT, LFN, PN" 2379 GC AMB AMB AMB . . . NONE GRASS_C EU 10 CULTIVARS TREATED AS REPS. 2383 GH . AMB AMB AND AMB+4 WW . FERTILIZED TEMP GRASS_C EU 2387 GH AMB- ~MAX=800 UMOL M-2 S-1 "16, W LIGHTS" 18/10-24/18 WW 1X WK-1 . NO ADDITIONAL "330, 500, 660 UL L-1 CO2" GRASS EU "CALCEROUS GRASSLAND. SPP AND ECOSYS 76 PLANTS/ CONTAINER REPRESENTING FIELD %, PESTICIDES USED." 2395 OTC AMB AMB AMB WATERED OCCASIONALLY AMB . . GRASS EU THE SPECIES GROW IN A XERIC TEMPERATE LOESS STEPPE. 2398 OTC AMB AMB AMB (~11) WW .. "ADDED, BUT NOT SPECIFIC; SEE TEXT." SEASONALITY GRASS EU USING GRAND MEANS AND SE ONLY; NOT USING SEASONAL DATA. 2401 OTC AMB AMB AMB WW AMB LOW/HI NPK FERT GRASS NA 2403 OTC AMB AMB AMB WW . 150 KG N HA-1 AND 270 KG N HA-1 FERT/OZONE GRASS_C EU 2407 FACE AMB AMB 3 C LESS THAN AMB WW + DROUGHT . . H2O GRASS_C NA . 2420 GC 550 UMOL M-2 S-1 SEASONAL SEASONAL WW . NONE TEMP GRASS NA "WATER TMT ALSO, BUT NOT USED IN DATASET. ""WINTER"" TEMP = 3" 2427 GH AMB + SUPPL (28.4 MOL M-2 S-1) 16 28/22 WW/DRY . 5KG M-3 15:10:10:2 NPK MG 3 MO RELEASE H2O GRASS AU 2430 GH AMB 2-3.9 MJ M-2 D-1 AMB 19 - 22.5 WW . SUPPLEMENTED NONE GRASS EU NOT USING 1992 DATA 2440 GC 1115 UMOL M-2 S-1 16/8 25/15 WW . N= 0 OR 300 KG HA-1; P= 56 KG HA-1; K= 46 KG HA-1 "FERT, TEMP" GRASS NA 2441 GC 1000 UMOL M-2 S-1 12/12/98 "DAY 20, 35; NIGHT 15" WW 60/~100 HALF STRENGTH HOAGLAND'S; =400 UL L-1 N TEMP 20 = CTL GRASS NA 2443 GH SEASONAL SEASONAL SEASONAL WW . HOAGLAND'S + - N; SEE METHODS AND RESULTS NONE. SEE RESULTS GRASS NA "N HAD NO EFFECT ON PN, OR APPARENTLY ON TOTWT" 2444 GC 600 UMOL/M2S PFD 15 H 20/15 DEGREES C WW "65/70 % (DAY,NIGHT)" "NITROGEN CONCENTRATIONS (.01, .1, 1.0, AND 5.0 MG N/L)" NITROGEN CONCENTRATIONS BY N SUPPLY (AMMONIUM OR NITRATE) GRASS EU SAMPLE SIZE OF GAS EXCHANGE MEASUREMENTS WAS USED FOR ALL MEASUREMENTS BECAUSE IT WAS THE ONLY ONE AVAILABLE. AGROSTIS CAPILLARIS IS A FAST GROWING GRASS. NARDUS ESTRICTA IS A SLOW GROWING GRASS. 2448 GC AMB AMB AMB WW . . TEMP GRASS_C NA . 2454 GC AMB 14 HR AMB WW 60-70%RH NUTRIENTS SUPPLEMENTED TWICE A WEEK NONE GRASS EU . 2468 GC 200 UMOL M-2 S-1 14H 19/15 C . . . . GRASS_C EU ANOTHER SET OF DATA (CO2 * SO2) CAN BE EXTRACTED 2474 GH AMBIENT AMBIENT . WW . MODIFIED HOAGLANDS "N= 5, 20, OR 50 MG L-1; P= 2, 11, OR 30 MG L-1; K=5, 20, 50 MG L-1" GRASS EU "CO2= AMB, AMB+250...1:1 SAND:PEAT; DATA TAKEN FROM P=3 + K=3 ONLY. AGN, AGC, AGK, AGP" 2480 GH 200 UMOL M-2 S-1 14 H 25/18 "WW, FLD" . NATIVE SOIL "FLD, SALT" WETL EU PLANTS ROTATED BETWEEN 2 GHS 2492 GC 220-250 UMOL M-2 S-1 14/10 23.5/19 80% OF FIELD CAPACITY 30/55 "194 MG N, 13 MG P, 24 MG K, 39 MG MG POT-1" DENSITY GRASS EU "USING LOWEST AND HIGHEST DENSITIES ONLY, AS REPS" 2502 OTC AMB AMB AMB PRECIP AMB NONE NONE WETL NA "SAME PARAMETERS WERE MEASURED AT DIFFERENT YEARS AND/OR THE SAME YEAR, BUT DIFFERENT MONTHS. EACH MONTH AND/OR YEAR WAS CONSIDERED A SEPARATE DATA POINT BECAUSE TIME OF EXPOSITION CHANGED. THE PAPER INCLUDES DATA ON LEAF RUBISCO AND LEAF SOLUBLE PROTEIN." 2503 FACE AMB AMB SEASONAL; -5-25 AMB SEASONAL N (100 OR 420 KG HA-1 Y-1); 120 KG HA-1 P205; 240 KG HA-1 K2O; 16 KG HA-1 MGO FERT: 100 OR 420 KG N HA-1 Y-1 GRASS EU OOT IN GROWTH BAGS. ETHANOL SOLUBLE TNC USED IN DATABASE. WATER- SOLUBLE TNC ALSO AVAILABLE. 2504 GH AMB; 180 UMOL M-2 S-1 + 100 UMOL M-2 S-1 16/8 20 WW . HI N=54 G M-2; LO N=9.5 G M-2; + OTHER NUTRIENTS FERT GRASS EU . 2510 GC AMB . AMB WW AMB FERTILIZED WEEKLY . . EU 2521 GC 500 UMOL M-2 S-1 13.5 H 23/17 WW 60-70 . OZONE GRASS_C EU . 2522 GC 500 UMOL M-2 S-1 14/10 24/14 WW 65+/-5 INITIAL AND EVERY 21 DAYS O3 GRASS EU 2525 OTC AMB AMB AMB WW AMB . . WETL NA CARBON CONTENT WITH SE/SD & N; ADDT'L VAR 2531 OTC AMB - 11% AMB AMB AMB AMB NONE NONE GRASS NA CO2 FROM APRIL/ MAY THRU OCT EACH OF 3 YRS 2541 OTC AMB AMB AMB+ AMB AMB NO ADDITIONAL CO2 GRASS NA "JASPER RIDGE. GS, E, LFY, PN, SEEDS, HT, AGWT, WVE, DNSITY, ISOTOPE, SEED WT, FRUITWT, SEED C, SEED N." 2547 GH AMB AMB 28/21/25(H20) WW . NPK INITIAL; VARIABLE N ADDED DURING SEASON CO2 ONLY APPROPRIATE WETL NA 2579 GC 1000 UMOL M-2 S-1 16/8 23/16 WW 70-80 ALL: 4.6 MG P; 5.8 MG K; N= 0 OR 32 MG POT-1 FERT . . 2580 GH amb amb 32/23; 35/26; 38/29 ww . "12.6, 6.3, 6.3, G N M-2 AT 7, 31 + 63 D" NONE WETL NA . 2595 GC 350 UMOL M-2 S-1 15/9 20/17 WW . . . . . 2597 GH AMB AMB AMB WW . . NONE GRASS_C EU . 2644 OTC AMB AMB AMB WW . 101 KG N HA-1; SEE ALSO T1 NONE GRASS NA 2654 OTC AMB AMB AMB AMB AMB AMB NONE GRASS NA JASPER RIDGE 2666 GH AMB 25-29 MOL M-2 D-1 16 H 20/14 WW / DRY . SOLUBLE OR SLOW RELEASE ADDED H2O GRASS_C AU 2669 GC 220-250 UMOL M-2 S-1 14/10 17-Dec WW 0.571428571 N: 0 OR 765 MG POT-1; 114 MG P; 193 MG K; 26 MG MG FERT GRASS EU USING ONLY CTL; HIGHEST FERT LEVELS 2692 FACE AMB AMB 32/23; 35/26; 38/29 WET/DRY AMB NON-LIMITING; REPEATED APPLICATIONS H2O GRASS NA DRY = HALF OF WET (WW). USE WET AS CTL 2698 OTC AMB AMB AMB AMB AMB NONE NONE GRASS NA "SUM Y EXPERIMENT. 2 OTC'S W/ CO2, OTC'S - CO2" 2709 FACE AMB AMB AMB . . . FERT/COMP GRASS EU TIME ASSUMED TO BE 730 BECAUSE AGWT WAS SUM OF TWO SEASONS 2710 FACE AMB AMB AMB AMB AMB LO: 10-14 G N M-2 Y-1; HI: 42-56 G N M-2 Y-1 DEFOL: 4 OR 7-8 Y-1; FERT GRASS EU MET IN TABLE 1 2711 GH 9.2 + 24.9 MOL M-2 S-1 AMB 30/25 WW >90 "30 MG N POT-1 + 60 G N POT-1, SEASONALLY" LIGHT GRASS AU 2715 GC 300 UMOL M-2 S-1 16/8 18/4 WW; 14% H20 0.928571429 28 MG P + 50 MG K KG-1 + N TREATMENTS N 8KG N HA-1 OR 278 KG N HA-1 GRASS EU 2718 GC 794 AMB 25/13 (DAY/NIGHT) WW AMB HOAGLAND'S SOLUTION EVERY 3 D DEFOL GRASS NA . 2723 GH 85-90% AMB 14-H AMB/AMB + 3 C WW AMB . TEMP . EU GS WITH NO SE/SD. Vc MAX WITH SE/SD AND N IN FIG. 4 2735 GH AMB AMB "AMB, AMB+4" WW AMB 10 G M-2 N; 15 G M-2 P; 15 G M-2 K TEMP GRASS EU 80% OF UVB 2737 GH 25 MOL M-2 DAY-1 16/8 17 WW 65 "COMPLETE, INCLUDE 188 MG L-1 N" "O3, SOIL" GRASS EU O3 NOT USED FOR PHYL DATASET 2756 OTC AMB AMB AMB AMB + DROUGHT AMB NONE H2O GRASS NA "UNDISTURBED TALL GRASS PRAIRIE; EARLY, MID + LATE SEASON DATA; EXP. RAN 4Y PRIOR TO THIS STUDY" 2758 OTC AMB AMB AMB . . . NONE GRASS EU . 2785 OTC AMBIENT AMBIENT AMBIENT AMBIENT AMBIENT HI FERT TRT ONLY FERT. 20 G M-2 NPK OSMOCOTE GRASS NA JASPER RIDGE. SERPENTINE SOIL 2793 OTC AMB AMB AMB AMB AMB . . GRASS EU MINI-RHIZOTRONE. DATA USED FROM 10 CM 2802 GH (TUNNEL) AMB AMB 0.3 C HIGHER DURING DAY; 0.2 C LOWER AT NIGHT . . FERT GRASS EU . 2821 GH 79% OF AMB AMB AMB WW . 8 G N M-2 PER 24 DAYS CO2 GRASS EU 2834 GC 750 UMOL M-2 S-1 16/8 16 WW 0.54 KPA 0.2 OR 2.5 MOL M-3 N; 0.04 OR 0.5 MOL M-3 P LOW N+LOW P OR HI N + HI P GRASS EU "P, OTHER MINERALS" 2835 GC 1000 UMOL M-2 S-1 16 30/20 WW 0.0025 "HOAGLAND'S, ALTERNATE WATERING" . GRASS NA 2839 OTC 85% OF AMB AMB "25/29 ( AMB, AMB+4)" WW . 220 KG N HA-1 TEMP WETL AS 2855 GH AMB+ 16/8 20/15 WW 70 NPK (HOAGLAND'S) OR 0.1 N (MODIFIED HOAGLAND'S) FERT GRASS EU 2856 GH AMB AMB 26/16 C DAY/NIGHT WW . . FERT GRASS_C AS . 2892 GC 645 UMOL M-2 S-1 16/8 24/18 WW . MODIFIED SHIVE'S SOLUTION O3 GRASS EU TIME FOR BIOMASS ASSUMED > 42 D; SEE FIG 6 2893 OTC AMB AMB 19 WW 67-71% 0.4 G L-1 N; 0.3 G L-1 P205; 0.4 G L-1 K20 NONE GRASS_C EU INTRODUCED IN 1890 2895 OTC AMB AMB AMB AMB . . NONE GRASS NA 2911 OTC AMB AMB AMB AMB AMB AMB O3 GRASS EU CTL O3 = 26-29 NMOL MOL-1; HI O3= 84 NMOL MOL-1 AVE FOR ALL DAYS 2919 GC AMB AMB 15 C MEAN . . "150 MG N, 18.1 MG P AND 34 MG K" H20 GRASS_C EU 2924 GH AMB; PN >1200 UMOL M-2 S-1 AMB 32/23; 35/26; 38/29 WW . "P, K= 9 G M-2; N (UREA) 12.6-6.3 G M-2 X3 DATES" TEMP WETL NA 2928 OTC 85% OF AMB AMB X= 25; AMB+4 WW . N: 110 KG HA-1 WET SEASON; 220 KG HA-1 DRY TEMP WETL AS DATA ON DEVELOPMENT STAGES 2935 OTC AMB . 28/21 (DAY / NIGHT) . . . H2O GRASS_C NA SPAR: SOIL-PLANT-ATMOSPHERE-RESEARCH CHAMBER 3034 GC 1000 UMOL M-2 S-1 14/10 28/22; 24/18; 21/25 WW 70 . TEMP. NOTE ECOTYPES GRASS NA "TEMPS: MISS: CTL=28, L0=2, . ; N.C: CTL=24, LO=21, HI=28; QUEBEC: CTL=21, . , HI =28" 3033 GC 65 UE M-2 S-1 14/10 28/22 WW 0.7 HALF STRENGTH HOAGLANDS NONE MIXED NA 3035 GC 1000 UMOL M-2 S-1 14/10 28/22; 24/18; 21/15 WW 70 . TEMP NOTE ECOTYPES GRASS NA "TEMPS: MISS: CTL=28, LO=21, . ; N.C: CTL=24, LO-21, HI=28; QUEBEC: CTL=21, . , HI=28" 3036 GC 150 OR 1000 UMOL M-2 S-1 14/10 29/23 WW 70 HALF STRENGTH HOAGLANDS LIGHT GRASS NA 3038 GH AMB AMB 34 WW . . NONE GRASS NA MIXED AND UNMIXED CULTURES 3042 GH AMB; 2ME M-2 S-1 AMB 32/20 WW 50-70 "4 LEVELS OF HENITTS: 24,12, 4, OR MM NITRATE" FERT GRASS_C NA ONLY MAIZE DATA WERE TAKEN 3401 GH AMB + LOW INTENSITY INCANDESCENT 1/16/00 28/23 "AT PLANTING ONLY, DRYING THEREAFTER" 60-70 .. H20 GRASS AU ASSUMING THAT TIME COURSE FOR WATER LOSS IS SIMILAR FOR ALL GRASS SPECIES (USING WHEAT (COMPANION PAPER)); WE USE TIME CLASSES FOR ANALYSES.