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***************************************************************************

FILE: 		pub/co/flask/complete/README
UPDATE:		Oct. 18, 1994

***************************************************************************

Atmospheric CARBON MONOXIDE Mixing Ratios from Flask Samples.

The data files "pub/co/flask/complete/xxx.co" (where xxx is the 3-letter 
site code; see "pub/co/flask/README" for a table of sampling sites and their 
codes), contain carbon monoxide mixing ratios along with pertinent sampling and 
analysis information tabulated by sampling site.  For each site, the data are 
ordered chronologically by sample date.  Shipboard data (not yet available) have  
file names /xxxhll.co where xxx represents the ship, h represents the hemisphere 
(n=northern and s=southern), and ll the latiude.

The data files contain one line for each flask sample. 
The format for each line is:

     sta yyyy mm dd hh mm xxxxx-xx c ddddd.dd fff ii YYYY MM DD kkkkkk nt

where:

     sta =	the three-letter station code (see table in "co/flask/README").
     yyyy mm dd = the GMT year, month, and day (four digit year,
                  two digit month and day) when the sample was collected
     hh mm =	the GMT time (hour, minutes; two digits
            	each) of sample collection
     xxxxx-xx = the flask sample I.D. number.  This
                field can contain up to eight       
                characters but may contain fewer.   
                This field may contain letters as well 
                as numbers.

     NOTE:  The sample date-time and flask ID number uniquely identify
	    each sample.  Details of the measurement strategy are given
	    in Lang et al., 1990a,b.

     c =	a one letter code that identifies the sample
        	collection method.  The codes are:

               P     Sample collected using a       
                     portable, battery powered      
                     pumping unit.  Two flasks      
                     are connected in series,       
                     flushed with air, and then     
                     pressurized to 1.2 - 1.5       
                     times ambient pressure.

               T     Evacuated flask filled by      
                     opening an O-ring sealed       
                     stopcock.

               S     Flasks filled at NOAA/CMDL     
                     observatories by sampling air  
                     from the in situ CO2           
                     measurement air intake         
                     system.

               N     Flasks are filled using a 
	             pump different from those 
		     used in method P.


     ddddd.dd =	CO mixing ratio in ppb by mole fraction referenced to the NOAA/CMDL
                carbon monoxide scale.  Missing values are denoted by -999.99.

     fff =	a three-character flag indicating the results
          	of our data selection process.  

	  	An alphanumeric other than a period (.) in the FIRST
	  	column indicates samples with obvious problems during 
	  	sample collection or analysis.

	  	An alphanumeric other than a period (.) in the SECOND 
	  	column indicates samples which are believed to be 
	  	non-background.

	  	An alphanumeric other than a period (.) in the THIRD
	  	column is a sample qualifier that is not presently used.

    		ii = a 2 character code that identifies the    
         	instrument used for the CO measurement.

     YYYY MM DD = the year (YYYY), month (MM), and day (DD),
                in local time, of the CO measurement.
 
     kkkkkk = a six character field identifying the raw file 
              for this analysis date. NO RAW indicates raw data 
              is not available.

     nt = two digit code where "n" is the nth aliquot of the total 
	  number of aliquots, "t", measured for each flask in a raw 
	  file.  Blank spaces indicate the data is not available.

***************************************************************************

REFERENCES


Lang, P.M., L.P. Steele, R.C. Martin, and K.A. Masarie, 1990a, Atmospheric 
  methane data for the period 1983-1985 from the NOAA/GMCC global cooperative 
  flask sampling network, NOAA Technical Memorandum ERL CMDL-1.

Lang, P.M., L.P. Steele, and R.C. Martin, 1990b, Atmospheric methane data for 
  the period 1986-1988 from the NOAA/CMDL global cooperative flask sampling 
  network, NOAA Technical Memorandum ERL CMDL-2.

Lang, P.M., L.P. Steele, L.S. Waterman, R.C. Martin, K.A. Masarie, and 
  E.J. Dlugokencky, 1992, NOAA/CMDL Atmospheric methane data for the period
  1983-1990 from shipboard flask sampling, NOAA Technical Memorandum ERL CMDL-4.

Novelli, P.C., J.W. Elkins, and L.P. Steele, 1991, The development and evaluation  
  of a gravimetric reference scale for measurements of atmospheric carbon monoxide,
  J. Geophys. Res., 96, 13,109-13,121.   

Novelli, P.C., L.P. Steele, and P.P. Tans, 1992, Mixing ratios of carbon monoxide in  
  the troposphere, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 20,731-20,750.