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==============================================================================

DATABASE:     DB1017 (2/1997)

TITLE:        Northern Hemisphere Biome- and Process-Specific 
              Forest Areas and Gross Merchantable Volumes: 1890-1990 

CONTRIBUTORS: A. N. D. Auclair, J. A. Bedford and C. Revenga
              Science and Policy Associates, Inc.
              1333 H Street NW, W400
              Washington, D.C. USA
              Email: scipol@access.digex.net

EDITED BY:    A. L. Brenkert
              Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)
              Oak Ridge National Laboratory
              Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830-6335
              Email: azt@ornl.gov

DOI: 10.3334/CDIAC/lue.db1017

==============================================================================

This db1017.doc (README) file contains:
             (I)   Introduction
             (II)  Data Used for this Database, Geographic Regions and Biomes 
             (III) The Database
             (IV)  FORTRAN and SAS Codes to Access the Data
             (V)   Description of Data Checks Performed by CDIAC
             (VI)  Instructions for Obtaining the Files
             (VII) References

==============================================================================

DOCUMENTATION

(I) Introduction

      Database DB1017 consists of annual values (1890 through 1990) of the 
areal extent (Ha) and gross merchantable (wood) volume (GMV in m3) of 
depletion and accrual processes in Northern Hemisphere boreal and temperate 
forests.  The data files cover six geographic regions: 
(1) Alaska, 
(2) Canada, 
(3) Europe, 
(4) Former Soviet Union, 
(5) Non-Soviet Temperate Asia, and
(6) the contiguous United States (48 states).  
      Forest depletions (source terms for atmospheric CO2) are identified 
as forest pests, forest diebacks, forest fires, forest harvests, and 
land-use changes.  Forest accruals (sink terms for atmospheric CO2) are 
identified as forest fire exclusion, forest fire suppression, and 
afforestation/crop abandonment.  
      Both the areal extent (Ha) and GMV (m3) are listed as total area and 
volume of the depletion or accrual processes, and are calculated 
separately for each of the following biomes:  
(a) forest tundra, 
(b) boreal forest (boreal softwood), 
(c) mixed wood (mixed hardwood),
(d) temperate softwoods, and
(e) temperate hardwoods.  
      The source terms for atmospheric CO2 due to land-use changes in 
temperate woodland and shrubland are reported in separate files.  
Percentages of lumber, pulp and fuelwood of GMV are provided for the 
forest harvest files, and the land-use files.  In addition, estimates of 
accelerated tree growth rates are provided in separate files.  Table 1 
gives an overview of the files.  Tables 4, 5, 6, and 7 provide a more 
extensive description of the files.

______________________________________________________________________________

Table 1.  List of the 69 files and the general naming convention.
______________________________________________________________________________

	Under Forest Depletions (sources for atmospheric CO2) are listed:
Forest Pests                                            6 regional.pe files
Forest Dieback                                          6 regional.fd files
                                                     & 18 species-specific files
Forest Fire                                             6 regional.fi files     
Forest Harvest                                          6 regional.ha files
Landuse: Forest Conversion to Cropland                  5 regional.lu files
Temperate Woodland and Shrubland Conversion to Cropland 3 regionalws.lu files

	Under Forest Accruals (sinks for atmospheric CO2) are listed:
Forest Fire Exclusion                                   4 regional.fe files
Forest Fire Suppression                                 6 regional.fs files
Afforestation and Cropland Abandonment                  5 regional.ac files
Temperate Wood and Shrubland Afforestation              1 regionalws.ac files
No files are provided for Forest Regrowth              no regional.re files

	Under Accelerated Tree-Growth are listed:
Accelerated Tree-Growth                                 3 avi.* files
______________________________________________________________________________


      The data files were generated by Auclair et al. (1994a, b, c, d, e) 
under contract to the United States Environment Protection Agency (EPA), 
Office of Environment Processes and Effect Research.  The focus of the 
Auclair et al. (1994a, b, c, d, e) effort was the calculation of carbon 
fluxes within the temperate and boreal forests by using the data files as 
input to a Carbon Flux model (Van Akkeren, 1994, Van Akkeren and Bedford, 
1994).  The EPA Carbon Flux bookkeeping model, converts area and volume 
estimates from the various forest processes in the Northern Hemisphere to 
carbon equivalents (Auclair et al., 1994d, e).

      The purpose of this database is to make the information used in the 
EPA Carbon Flux model available without charge.  In addition, the Carbon 
Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) is providing this 
documentation.  The data are accessible through the Internet and a variety
of media (e.g., floppy diskettes, 8-mm tape).  The database consists of 
69 data files, 9 graphics image format (gif) files, and this db1017.doc
file, and requires around 1.3 megabytes of disk storage.

================================================================================

(II) Data used for this Database, Geographic Regions and Biomes 

      Auclair et al. (1994e) used the following databases, in addition to 
the literature, for generating the files:
  1) National Forest Statistics of the U.S.D.A Forest Service and Forestry 
Canada: Inventories are based on permanent sample plots stratified to 
monitor forest changes on a continuous basis at 5-10 year intervals. 
  2) National Forestry Annual Data: a wide array of archived annual data 
is available on specific forest depletions (pests, weather, dieback, 
wildfire, harvesting, conversion to non-forest) and accruals (replanting 
and regrowth, tree diameter, volume growth, conversion of non-forest to 
forest).  
  3) Tree Growth Rate Data: a databank of 1600 tree growth chronologies 
was obtained from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center. 
  4) Forest harvesting data that are available from 1979 to 1990 from 
UN/FAO reports (United Nations, 1992) for Eurasian data.
  5) Land use (harvesting, forest conversion to cropland, afforestation, 
cropland abandonment) estimates over the 1700-1980 period as reconstructed
 by Houghton and Hackler (1994).

      For the United States and Canada the national forestry databases of 
the U.S.D.A. Forest Service and Forestry Canada were compiled for annual 
total area and GMV of forest depletions in Alaska, Canada, and the 
contiguous U.S.A.  Records of natural depletions (pests, dieback, wildfire)
were consistent from 1950 to 1990 and often extended back to 1920.  
Extrapolations back to periods prior to 1920, that is, 1890 for this 
database, were based on the average of the first decade of available 
statistics.  Man-caused depletions (harvesting, forest conversion to 
cropland) were estimated from both the national forest statistics and from
the literature.  Houghton and Hackler's (1994) estimates of rates of 
conversion of forest to cropland were used with some modifications (e.g., 
Canada's forest conversion to cropland was assumed to be 15% of the area 
and volume of the total North American continent estimates).  Accruals 
(fire suppression, fire exclusion, regrowth, reforestation and 
afforestation, accelerated tree growth) were estimated from the forest 
statistics, published literature, and published dendrochronologies of tree 
radial increments.  Houghton and Hackler's (1994) estimates of annual 
afforestation rates and cropland abandonment were used.

      For the Eurasian data, there was no ready access to yearly century-
long trends on each depletion or accrual process (Auclair et al., 1994a,e).
The exceptions were forest harvesting from UN/FAO reports (United Nations,
1992) for the years 1979-1990 and land-use estimates (harvesting, forest 
conversion to cropland, afforestation and cropland abandonment) 
reconstructed by Houghton and Hackler (1994) for the period 1700-1980 
(Auclair et al., 1994a, e).  A combination of the UN/FAO harvest rates, 
Houghton and Hackler's land-use estimates with some redefinitions of their
biome classes, and the biome redefinitions were used for GMV and areal 
extent calculations of forest harvesting and changes in land-use.  To 
approximate the level of natural depletions (pests, dieback, wildfire) and
accruals (fire exclusion, fire suppression, accelerated tree growth) 
"surrogate" biomes in North America were identified, providing the pattern
of the changes over time.  These patterns were then extrapolated to the 
Eurasian biomes (Auclair et al., 1994a, File 11).  The extrapolation was 
made in each case using the actual areas of the biomes in question.

    Auclair et al. (1994a: Data File 11, in section: Expansion 
Coefficients Dataset 3b) list the areas of the different biomes for each 
region expressed in units of a million Ha.  The initial estimates were 
based on a pixel count of Olson et al.'s (1983) ecoregion distribution.  
Because of differences of these estimates with estimates of total forest 
areas of the regions and the biome area distributions in the United 
Nations/FAO report and in published literature the initial estimates were 
revised and are listed in Table 2.

______________________________________________________________________________

Table 2.  Areal estimates for individual biomes in each of the geographic 
regions in units of million Ha.
___________________________________________________________________________
                   Canada Alaska  US(48)  Europe F.USSR N.S.Asia    Total
___________________________________________________________________________
forest tundra      195.87  31.32    -      18.09  227.7    -       472.98
boreal forest      178.25  13.05    -      41.81  471.3   16.0     720.41
mixed hardwood      21.30   5.22    -       -      26.5    8.0      61.02
temperate softwood  22.97   2.61   92.06   29.32   42.2   60.0     249.16
temperate hardwood  34.91   -     151.80  104.58   43.2  150.0     484.49
__________________  _____  _____  ______  ______  _____  _____    _______
total forest       453.31  52.20  243.86  193.80  810.9  234.0    1988.06
___________________________________________________________________________


      Character and function of forests, together with carbon storage and 
flux, differ among regions and forest types.  For this reason, Auclair et 
al. (1994a) structured the database on a (geopolitical) regional and biome
basis.  The six regions are listed in the introduction and above. Auclair's
biome descriptions compared to Houghton and Hackler's (1994) are listed in
Table 3.  
______________________________________________________________________________

Table 3. Comparison of biome descriptions. 
______________________________________________________________________________

Auclair et al., 1994a,e             Houghton and Hackler, 1994
______________________________________________________________________________

forest tundra                       -
boreal forest (boreal softwood)     boreal forest for forest harvesting and
                                      Temperate Softwood Forest 
mixed wood (mixed hardwood)         boreal forest for forest conversion to 
                                      cropland
temperate softwoods                 temperate evergreen forest 
temperate hardwoods                 temperate deciduous forest and  
                                      vegetation type 5 of Walters, (1973), 
                                      listed as Tropical Seasonal Forests 
temperate woodland and shrubland    temperate woodland and shrubland and  
                                      tropical woodland and shrubland  
______________________________________________________________________________

      Definitions of biomes can be found in Houghton, Hackler, and Daniels 
(1995).  The following definitions are from that source for the above 
categorized biomes: 
Tundra:     'Insufficient heat.  Consists of low herbaceous plants and
             dwarf trees.  Sedges, grasses, and lichens are also found.  
             Soil of this biome is frozen throughout the winter with only
             the top few feet thawing during the summer.'

Forest:     'Abundant water and heat.  Consists of closely set trees whose
             crowns form a continuous canopy that provide shade for the 
             ground and lower layers of vegetation.' 

Woodland:   'Transitional biome between forest and grassland.  Consists of
             widely spaced trees whose crowns do not form a continuous
             canopy.  Ground is usually covered with a dense layer of 
             grass, shrubs, or forbs.' 

      Other definitions from the same source, relevant to the above, are:
For Latitudinal Regions:
Boreal:     'Includes the subarctic zone.'

Temperate:  'Includes half of the subtropical zones and midlatitude zones.'

For Precipitation Regimes:
Moist:      'A continuous hot, frost-free climate with abundant 
             precipitation in all months of the year.'

Warm:       'A continuously cool, frost-free climate with abundant 
             precipitation.  This type occurs on highlands within the 
             seasonal and moist regions.'

For Dominant Vegetation Covers:
Deciduous:  'Occurs in the midlatitudes where winters are cold, summers are
             warm, and precipitation is adequate all months of the year.  
             Consists of tall broadleaf trees that develop a continuous
             canopy in the summer but shed their leaves in the winter.  
             Lower layers are weakly developed, with a dense layer of 
             herbs in spring.'

Evergreen:  'Occurs in climates where the dominant tree species grow 
             continuously throughout the year.'

Scrub:      'Occurs in hot locations of the world that experience long dry
             seasons with brief, but intense, rainy periods.  Vegetation 
             cover consists of small drought-tolerant trees, shrubs, 
             grasses, and cactus.'

	Auclair et al. (1994e, p. 11) give an example of the relation 
between carbon storage and GMV: 'The total GMV of forest harvest (i.e., 
industrial plus non-industrial fractions) was calculated from the C 
release of the total tree mass (minus slash) by assuming 3.94 m3/tC in 
softwood and 4.68 m3/tC in hardwood biomes (Birdsey 1992), and a total 
tree volume to gross merchantable volume ratio of 2.44.  Tree crowns (i.e.
slash) were assumed to represent about 33% of the total tree volume'.  One
more conversion factor from GMV to C, beyond the ones mentioned above, is 
listed in Auclair et al. (1994a: File 4 Forest Harvest under the Europe, 
Former Soviet Union, Non-Soviet Temperate Asia and Northern Hemisphere 
Summary section): for mixed hardwoods in Europe this conversion factor is 
4.28 m3/tC. 

================================================================================

(III) The Database

      Basic units in the database are annual values of areal extent (Ha) 
and gross merchantable volume (GMV in m3) of depletion and accrual 
processes.  Calculations of areal extent and GMV are forest-process 
dependent and are comprehensively documented in  Auclair et al. (1994a).

      Table 4 summarizes the forest accrual and forest depletion 
information provided in each file.  All files have 16 columns.  Not all 
columns show depletions or accruals for each of the years for all regions 
for  1890-1990.  A non-zero value/zero value (+/-) string was added in 
Table 4 for each file indicating for which column at which years non-zero 
values were reported.  The files in Table 4 are ordered first by region, 
and secondly by forest accrual and forest depletion processes.  The column
headings of the files are as follows:
"Year Area (Ha) Volume (m3) FTDRA (Ha) BSFWD (Ha) MHDWD (Ha) TSFWD (Ha) 
THDWD (Ha) FTDRA (m3) BSFWD (m3) MHDWD (m3) TSFWD (m3) THDWD (m3) % Lumber
 % Pulp % Fuelwood"  where for the 16 columns:
 (1)  Year         Specific year for data
 (2)  Area (Ha)    Total area of depletion or accrual 
                   (for that specific year)
 (3)  Volume (m3)  Total volume (GMV) of depletion or accrual 
                   (for that specific year)
         Biome areas undergoing depletion or accrual processes:  
 (4)  FTDRA (Ha)   Forest Tundra
 (5)  BSFWD (Ha)   Boreal Softwood
 (6)  MHDWD (Ha)   Mixed Hardwood
 (7)  TSFWD (Ha)   Temperate Softwood
 (8)  THDWD (Ha)   Temperate Hardwood
         Biome GMV undergoing depletion or accrual processes:
 (9)  FTDRA (m3)   Forest Tundra
(10)  BSFWD (m3)   Boreal Softwood
(11)  MHDWD (m3)   Mixed Hardwood
(12)  TSFWD (m3)   Temperate Softwood
(13)  THDWD (m3)   Temperate Hardwood
          Harvest Percentages of:  
(14)  % Lumber     of GMV
(15)  % Pulp       of GMV
(16)  % Fuelwood   of GMV

_____________________________________________________________________

Table 4.  Detailed list of forest accrual and forest depletion files.
_____________________________________________________________________

REGION
  Forest Process:
      file    file                                               file
      name    description                                        size
                                                              (bytes)
              + indicates a non-zero value listed in that column 
                  for the listed years
              - indicates a zero value listed in that column 
                  for the listed years
_____________________________________________________________________

ALASKA:
  Forest Depletions:           
      ak.pe   forest pests                                      10378
              +++-+++--+++---- 1890-1990
      ak.fd   forest dieback                                     6578
              ++++----+------- 1890-1933, 1935-1942, 1944-1945, 
                               1950,1966, 1983-1984
              +++++---++------ 1934,1943, 1946-1949, 1951-1965,
                               1967-1982, 1985-1990
      ak.fi   forest fire                                        9259
              +++++++-++++---- 1890-1990
      ak.ha   forest harvest                                     9764
              +------------+++ 1890-1942
              +++-+++--+++-+++ 1943-1952, 1971-1990
              +++-+-+--+-+-+++ 1953-1970
  Forest Accruals:
      ak.fs   fire suppression                                   8246
              +--------------- 1890-1990

CANADA:
  Forest Depletions:
      ca.pe   forest pests                                      12810
              +++-++++-++++--- 1890-1990
      ca.fd   forest dieback                                     8670
              +++-+-++-+-++--- 1890-1933, 1935-1942, 1944-1945, 
                               1950, 1966, 1983-1984
              +++-+-+--+-+---- 1934,1943, 1946-1949, 1951-1965, 
                               1967-1982, 1985-1990
      ca.fi   forest fire                                       12802
              +++++++-++++---- 1890-1990                              
      ca.ha   forest harvest                                    14088
              +++-++++-+++++-+ 1890-1900                              
              +++-++++-+++++++ 1901-1990                              
      ca.lu   land-use                                           8055
              +++--+++--++++-+ 1890-1899                              
              +++--+++--++++++ 1900-1990                              
  Forest Accruals:
      ca.fe   fire exclusion                                     3776
              +++--++---++---- 1890                                   
              +--------------- 1891-1990                              
      ca.fs   fire suppression                                   7289
              +--------------- 1890-1935
              +++++++-++++---- 1936-1990
      ca.ac   afforestation and crop abandonment                 7611
              +++---++---+++-+ 1890-1900
              +++---++---+++++ 1901-1990

EUROPE:
  Forest Depletions:
      eu.pe   forest pests                                      10855
              +++-+-++-+-++--- 1890-1990
      eu.fd   forest dieback                                     9459
              +++---+----+---- 1890-1891, 1895-1899
              +++---++---++--- 1892-1894, 1900-1933, 1935-1942, 
                               1944-1945, 1950
              +++-+-++-+-++--- 1934,1943, 1946-1949, 1951-1990
      eu.fi   forest fire                                       12651
              +++++-++++-++--- 1890-1990
      eu.ha   forest harvest                                    10199
              +++-+-++-+-+++-+ 1890-1899
              +++-+-++-+-+++++ 1900-1990
      eu.lu   land-use                                           7957
              +++--+++--++++-+ 1890-1899
              +++--+++--++++++ 1900-1959
              +------------+++ 1960-1990
      euws.lu land-use of Europe's temperate woodland and 
              shrubland biome                                    5954
              +++----+----++-+ 1890-1899
              +++----+----++++ 1900-1959
              +------------+++ 1960-1990
  Forest Accruals:
      eu.fe   fire exclusion                                     3737
              +++---+----+---- 1890
              +--------------- 1891-1990
      eu.fs   fire suppression                                   8585
              +--------------- 1890-1935
              +++++-++++-++--- 1936-1990
      eu.ac   afforestation and crop abandonment                 7665
              +++---+----+-+-+ 1890-1899
              +++---+----+-+++ 1900-1969
              +++--+++--++++++ 1970-1990
      euws.ac afforestation and crop abandonment
              for Europe's temperate woodland and shrubland biome 5058
              +------------+-+ 1890-1899
              +------------+++ 1900-1969
              +++----+----++++ 1970-1990

FORMER SOVIET UNION:
  Forest Depletions:
      fu.pe   forest pests                                      12523
              +++-++++-++++--- 1890-1990
      fu.fd   forest dieback                                     8254
              +--------------- 1890-1894, 1904-1913,
              +++----+----+--- 1895-1903, 1914-1915, 1917-1924, 
                               1931, 1966, 1983-1984
              +++---++---++--- 1916, 1925-1930, 1932-1933, 
                               1935-1942, 1944-1945, 1950
              +++-+-++-+-++--- 1934,1943, 1946-1949, 1951-1965, 
                               1975-1978, 1988-1990
              +++-+--+-+--+--- 1967-1974, 1979-1982, 1985-1987
      fu.fi   forest fire                                       14633
              +++++++++++++--- 1890-1990
      fu.ha   forest harvest                                     8843
              +++-+--+-+--++-+ 1890-1900
              +++-+--+-+--++++ 1901-1990
      fu.lu   land-use                                           6875
              +++----+----++-+ 1890-1899
              +++----+----++++ 1900-1939, 1950-1968, 1975-1990
              +------------+++ 1940-1949, 1969-1974
  Forest Accruals:
      fu.fe   fire exclusion                                     4697
              +++--++---++---- 1890
              +--------------- 1891-1990
      fu.fs   fire suppression                                   9542
              +--------------- 1890-1935
              +++++++++++++--- 1936-1990
      fu.ac   afforestation and crop abandonment                 5249
              +------------+-+ 1890-1899
              +------------+++ 1900-1939, 1950-1968, 1975-1990
              +++----+----++++ 1940-1949, 1969-1974

NON-SOVIET TEMPERATE ASIA:
  Forest Depletions:
      na.pe   forest pests                                      12600
              +++-++++-++++--- 1890-1990
      na.fd   forest dieback                                     8306
              +--------------- 1890-1894, 1904-1913
              +++----+----+--- 1895-1903, 1914-1915, 1966, 
                               1983-1984
              +++---++---++--- 1916, 1925-1930, 1932-1945, 1950
              +++---+----+---- 1917-1924, 1931
              +++-+-++-+-++--- 1946-1949, 1951-1965, 1975-1978, 
                               1988-1990
              +++-+--+-+--+--- 1967-1974, 1979-1982, 1985-1987
      na.fi   forest fire                                       12666
              +++-++++-++++--- 1890-1990
      na.ha   forest harvest                                     8603
              +++---++---+++-+ 1890-1900
              +++---++---+++++ 1901-1990
      na.lu   land-use                                           8595
              +++---++---+++-+ 1890-1899
              +++---++---+++++ 1900-1990
      naws.lu land-use for Non-Soviet Asia's 
              temperate woodland and shrubland biome             6906
              +++----+----++-+ 1890-1899
              +++----+----++++ 1900-1990
  Forest Accruals:
      na.fe   fire exclusion                                     3799
              +++--++---++---- 1890
              +--------------- 1891-1990
      na.fs   fire suppression                                   8406
              +--------------- 1890-1935
              +++-++++-++++--- 1936-1990
      na.ac   afforestation and crop abandonment                 5997
              +------------+-+ 1890-1899
              +------------+++ 1900-1950
              +++---+----+-+++ 1951-1990

CONTIGUOUS UNITED STATES (48 states):
  Forest Depletions:
      us.pe   forest pests                                       7525
              +++---++---++--- 1890-1990
      us.fd   forest dieback                                     7593
              +--------------- 1890-1894, 1904-1913
              +++----+----+--- 1895-1903, 1914-1915, 1965-1974,
                               1979-1987 
              +++---++---++--- 1916, 1925-1964, 1975-1978,
                               1988-1990
              +++---+----+---- 1917-1924
      us.fi   forest fire                                        7637
              +++---++---++--- 1890-1990
      us.ha   forest harvest                                     7947
              +++---++---+++-+ 1890-1899
              +++---++---+++++ 1900-1990
      us.lu   land-use                                           8182
              +++---++---+++-+ 1890-1899
              +++---++---+++++ 1900-1990
      usws.lu land-use for the United States'  
              temperate woodland and shrubland biome             5906
              +++----+----++-+ 1890-1899
              +++----+----++++ 1900-1949
              +------------+++ 1950-1990
  Forest Accruals:
      us.fs   fire suppression                                   5749
              +--------------- 1890-1935
              +++---++---++--- 1936-1990
      us.ac   afforestation and crop abandonment                 8037
              +++---++---+++-+ 1890-1899
              +++---++---+++++ 1900-1990
_____________________________________________________________________


      Table 5 summarizes the species-specific forest die-back information.
These files also have 16 columns and not all columns show non-zero values 
for all years for all regions for the period of 1890-1990.  A non-zero 
value/zero value (+/-) string indicates here also for which column at 
which year non-zero were reported.  The files in Table 5 are also ordered 
first by region, but secondly by the species softwood or hardwood 
designation.  The headings of the files are identical to Table 4.

_____________________________________________________________________

Table 5.  List of species-specific die-back files.
_____________________________________________________________________

REGION
      file    file                                               file
      name    description                                        size
                                                              (bytes)
              + indicates a non-zero value listed in that column 
                  for the listed years
              - indicates a zero value listed in that column 
                  for the listed years
_____________________________________________________________________

ALASKA:
    Softwood:
      ak.yc   Yellow Cedar                                       5923
              ++++----+------- 1890-1990

CANADA:
    Softwoods:
      ca.wp   White Pine                                         5447
              +++---+----+---- 1916-1964
              +--------------- remaining years
      ca.yc   Yellow Cedar                                       6505
              ++++----+------- 1890-1990
    Hardwoods:
      ca.as   Ash                                                5073
              +++----+----+--- 1929-1930, 1954-1990
              +--------------- remaining years
      ca.bf   Balsam Fir                                         4663
              ++++---+----+--- 1933, 1948, 1960-1984
              +--------------- remaining years
      ca.bi   Birch                                              4139
              +++----+----+--- 1937-1951
              +--------------- remaining years
      ca.ma   Maple                                              4451
              +++----+----+--- 1946-1949, 1963-1968, 1977-1978, 
                               1980-1986, 1989-1990
              +--------------- remaining years
      ca.oa   Oak                                                3997
              +++----+----+--- 1977-1984
              +--------------- remaining years
      ca.rs   Red Spruce                                         4991
              +++----+----+--- 1897-1900, 1933, 1937-1938,
                               1948-1949, 1957, 1959-1984
              +--------------- remaining years

CONTIGUOUS UNITED STATES (48 states):
    Softwoods:
      us.tf   True Fir                                           4595
              +++---+----+---- 1923-1925, 1930-1934, 1948-1952,
                               1959-1963, 1975-1978, 1988-1990
              +--------------- remaining years
      us.wp   Western White Pine                                 5433
              +++---+----+---- 1916-1964
              +--------------- remaining years
    Hardwoods:
      us.as   Ash                                                5083
              +++----+----+--- 1929-1930, 1954-1990
              +--------------- remaining years
      us.bf   Balsam Fir                                         4663
              +++----+----+--- 1933, 1948, 1960-1984
              +--------------- remaining years
      us.bi   Birch                                              4345
              +++----+----+--- 1939-1952, 1979-1980, 1989-1990
              +--------------- remaining years
      us.ma   Maple                                              5179
              +++----+----+--- 1939-1949, 1956-1971, 1973, 
                               1976-1982, 1984-1990
              +--------------- remaining years
      us.oa   Oak                                                5383
              +++----+----+--- 1895-1903, 1914-1916, 1925-1928,
                               1953-1959, 1966-1969, 1971-1990
              +--------------- remaining years
      us.rs   Red Spruce                                         4991
              +++----+----+--- 1897-1900, 1933, 1937-1938,
                               1948-1949, 1957, 1959-1984
              +--------------- remaining years
      us.se   South East Pine                                    5805
              +++----+----+--- 1932-1990
              +--------------- 1890-1931
_____________________________________________________________________


      Table 6 lists the three accelerated tree-growth increment files.  
These three files have two columns each.  The first column indicates the 
year, and the second column  contains factors or indices used for weighting
tree growth.  The value can be positive or negative given that tree growth
can fluctuate above or below the regression line of expected growth.
	The avi.ftb file is relevant to the forest tundra and boreal 
forests and is based on the Jacoby and D'Arrigo (1989) data. The data are 
factors derived by factor analysis (eigenvectors) of tree-ring widths.  
The avi.tsm file is relevant for mixed hardwoods and temperate softwoods 
and is based on tree-ring data of bristlecone pine, provided by Gary 
Funkhouser (pers. comm., Auclair et al.).  Data in this file are growth-
rate indices.  The avi.thd file is relevant for temperate hardwoods and is
based on the NOAA National Geophysical Data Center tree ring data.  Data 
in this file are growth-rate indices.  The headings of accelerated volume 
increment (avi) files are as follows:
avi.ftb    YEARS,Jacoby (FT & BF)
avi.thd    YEARS,NGDC (THDWD)    
avi.tsm    YEARS,"Funkhauser (MH,TS)" 

_____________________________________________________________________

Table 6.  List of the accelerated volume increment files. 
_____________________________________________________________________

    file      file description                              file size
    name                                                      (bytes)  
_____________________________________________________________________
    avi.ftb   accelerated growth (factor) for the
              forest tundra and boreal forests                  1079
              (Jacoby & D'Arrigo data)
    avi.thd   accelerated growth (weighting index) for the
              temperate hardwood forests                         989
              (NGDC tree ring data, based on 
               Jacoby & D'Arrigo, 1989)
    avi.tsm   accelerated growth (weighting index) for the
              mixed hardwood and temperate softwood forests     1041
              (Funkhouser data)
_____________________________________________________________________


	Table 7 lists the graphic image format (gif) files of the data.  
Each gif file represents the total GMV (m3) of the accrual or depletion 
process in one image, and the total areal extent (Ha) of the accrual or 
depletion process in a second image for each geographic region for 1890 
to 1990.  The biome-specific processes for each region are not represented
as gif images.  The accelerated growth-rate information is graphed 
separately.

_____________________________________________________________________

Table 7. List of the graphics image format (gif) files.
_____________________________________________________________________

    file                                                    file size
    name                                                      (bytes)  
_____________________________________________________________________

For Forest Depletions (Sources for atmospheric CO2):
    forestpestlosses.gif                                        15795
    forestdiebacks.gif                                          18599
    forestfires.gif                                             26097
    forestharvestlosses.gif                                     15994
    landuselosses.gif                                           14148

For Forest Accruals (Sinks for Atmospheric CO2):
    fireexclusionsinks.gif                                       9635
    firesuppressionsink.gif                                     13303
    afforestationsink.gif                                       11949

For Accelerated Tree Growth:                                
    accgrowth.gif                                               19375
_____________________________________________________________________

================================================================================

(IV) FORTRAN-77 and SAS codes to access files

The following is a listing of the FORTRAN code to access each of the 16 
column depletion and accrual data files.

__________________________________________________
      OPEN (UNIT=10,FILE='ak.pe',STATUS='old')
      READ(10,*)
      DO I=1,100
        READ (10,*) Year,Area,Volume,
     &AFTDRA,ABSFWD,AMHDWD,ATSFWD,ATHDWD,
     &VFTDRA,VBSFWD,VMHDWD,VTSFWD,VTHDWD,
     &Plumb,Ppulp,Pfwood
      ENDDO
      CLOSE (UNIT=10)
      STOP
      END
__________________________________________________


The following is a listing of the FORTRAN code to access each of the 2 
column accelerated growth-increment data files.

__________________________________________________
      REAL*4 Info
      OPEN (UNIT=10,FILE='avi.thd',STATUS='old')
      READ(10,*)
      DO I=1,100
         READ (10,*) Year,Info
      ENDDO
      CLOSE (UNIT=10)
      STOP
      END
__________________________________________________


The following is a listing of the SAS code to access each of the 16 column
depletion and accrual data files.  (SAS is the registered trademark of 
SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, North Carolina, 27511, USA.)

_________________________________________________________
DATA CHANGE;
INFILE 'ak.pe' missover FIRSTOBS=2;
INPUT Year Area Volume AFTDRA ABSFWD AMHDWD ATSFWD ATHDWD 
                       VFTDRA VBSFWD VMHDWD VTSFWD VTHDWD  
                       Plumb Ppulp Pfwood;
RUN;
_________________________________________________________


The following is a listing of the SAS code to access each of the 2 column
avi data files.

_____________________________________
DATA AVI;
INFILE 'avi.thd' missover FIRSTOBS=2;
INPUT Year Info;
RUN;
_____________________________________


NOTE that the files can easily be pulled into spread-sheet software
like Microsoft Excel.

================================================================================

(V)  QA performed by CDIAC

      One of the roles of the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center 
(CDIAC) is to quality assure (QA) data.  The QA process is an important 
component of the value-added concept of ensuring accurate, usable 
information for researchers, because data received by CDIAC are rarely in 
condition for immediate distribution, regardless of source.  The following
summarizes the checks performed on the Auclair et al. data:

(a) term definitions
(b) file organization
(c) file listings and figures providing overviews of the information
(d) FORTRAN and SAS access codes

	Comprehensive documentation of the GMV and areal extent 
calculations is provided in Auclair et al. (1994a) and is available in 
hardcopy at cost of replication and delivery (see section VI).  CDIAC is 
acquainted with this information but has not undertaken a QA of that 
report.  
      Note that Data File 12, Report #2, TASK 2 (Auclair et al., 1994a) is 
a Quality Assurance and Quality Control chapter for the areas of Canada, 
Alaska, United States (48 states), with range estimates of validation and 
error, a listing of discussions with experts in the field and a review of 
the draft of data files.

================================================================================

(VI)  How to obtain the information

The 69 data files, and this db1017.doc file are available, free of charge from 
CDIAC's anonymous FTP (File Transfer Protocol) area as follows:

  > ftp to cdiac.esd.ornl.gov (or 128.219.24.36)
  > enter 'anonymous' as user id
  > enter your e-mail address as password
  > cd pub/db1017 
  > dir
  > get filenames
  > bye

The database can also be accessed via the World Wide Web from CDIAC's 
homepage 
  http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov  
   click on Products and Services
   click on CDIAC's Anonymous FTP Service
   click on CDIAC's FTP area
   click on db1017
   click on any of the files

For non-FTP data acquisitions (e.g. IBM- or MacIntosh-formatted floppy
diskettes; 8200 or 8500 format for 8-mm tape), users may request data, 
free of charge from CDIAC using the following address:

  Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center
  Oak Ridge National Laboratory
  Post Office Box 2008
  Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6335, USA

  Phone:  (423) 574-3645 or (423) 574-0390
  FAX:    (423) 574-2232
  E-Mail: cdiac@ornl.gov


The Auclair et al. (1994a, b, c, d, e) reports are available in hardcopy at
cost of replication and delivery:   
  Science and Policy Associates, Inc.
  1333 H Street NW, W400
  Washington, D.C. USA
  Email: scipol@access.digex.net

================================================================================

(VII) References:

Auclair, A.N.D., J.A. Bedford, and C. Revenga 1994a.  
National forest depletion and accrual dataset: Area and volume estimates.  
Documentation File, Version 3.  Task Report 2 to the Office of Research 
and Development, Environmental Protection Agency (Washington, DC).  
Science and Policy Associates, Inc., Suite W400, Landmark Building, 
1333 H Street NW, Washington, DC 20005.

Auclair, A.N.D., J.A. Bedford, and C. Revenga 1994b.  
Biome and process-specific forest area and volume dataset: Carbon flux model 
data input file.  Task Report 3 to the Office of Research and Development, 
Environmental Protection Agency (Washington, DC).  
Science and Policy Associates, Inc., Suite W400, Landmark Building, 
1333 H Street NW, Washington, DC 20005.

Auclair, A.N.D., J.A. Bedford, and C. Revenga 1994c.  
Carbon Flux Model estimates: Output matrix documentation file.  Task Report 6 
to the Office of Research and Development, Environmental Protection Agency 
(Washington, DC).  Science and Policy Associates, Inc., Suite W400, 
Landmark Building, 1333 H Street NW, Washington, DC 20005.

Auclair, A.N.D., J.A. Bedford, and C. Revenga 1994d.  
Carbon Flux Model estimates: Summary tables documentation file.  Task Report 7 
to the Office of Research and Development, Environmental Protection Agency 
(Washington, DC).  Science and Policy Associates, Inc., Suite W400, 
Landmark Building, 1333 H Street NW, Washington, DC 20005.

Auclair, A.N.D., J.A. Bedford, and C. Revenga 1994e.  
The missing carbon sink in the terrestrial biosphere.  Task Report 8 to the 
Office of Research and Development, Environmental Protection Agency 
(Washington, DC).  Science and Policy Associates, Inc., Suite W400, 
Landmark Building, 1333 H Street NW, Washington, DC 20005.

Houghton, R. A. and J. Hackler: edited by R. C. Daniels, March, 1995. 
Continental Scale Estimates of the Biotic Carbon Flux from Land Cover Change:
1850 to 1980.  Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Environmental
Sciences Division, Pub. No. 4379, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN.

Van Akkeren, P.A. 1994.  The EPA Carbon Flux model: Design document 
(Part I and II).  Task Report 4 to the Office of Research and Development, 
Environmental Protection Agency (Washington, DC).  Science and Policy 
Associates, Inc., Suite W400, Landmark Building, 1333 H Street NW, 
Washington, DC 20005.

Van Akkeren, P.A., and J.A. Bedford 1994.  The EPA Carbon Flux model: 
Users' guide.  Task Report 5 to the Office of Research and Development, 
Environmental Protection Agency (Washington, DC).  Science and Policy 
Associates, Inc., Suite W400, Landmark Building, 1333 H Street NW, 
Washington, DC 20005.

=====

Auclair et al.'s (1994) references that are referred to in this db1017.doc file 
are the following:

Alaska Fire Service 1992.  Annual forest fire reports, 1944-1990. Alaska Fire
Service, Bureau of Land Management, Department of Interior, P.O. Box 35005,
Fort Wainwright, Alaska, USA.

Birdsey, R.A., 1992.  Carbon storage and accumulation in United States forest 
ecosystems.  General Technical Report WO-59, Northeastern Forest Experiment 
Station, USDA Forest Service, Radnor, Pennsylvania. USA.

Forestry Canada 1991.  Selected forestry statistics, Canada, 1991.  Policy
and Economics Directorate, Forestry Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Forestry Canada 1992a.  Annual forest fire statistics on number of fires and
area burned in Canada, 1918-1990. Petawa National Institute of Forestry,
Canadian Forestry Service, Chalk River, Ontario, Canada.

Forestry Canada 1992b.  National forest harvest database, 1962-1992.  Forestry
Canada. Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Funkhauser, Gary. Personal Communication.  Laboratory of Tree Ring Research, 
University of Arizona, Tuscon, AZ-85721 (Data is a recent update of Dr. Donald
Graybill's analysis of bristlecone pine at Sheep MTN, CA). 

Houghton, R. A. and J. Hackler, 1994.  The Houghton global land-use dataset:
Updated database and documentation notes.  Unpublished report.  The Woods
Hole Research Center, Woods Hole, Massachusetts. USA.

Jacoby G. C. and R. D'Arrigo, 1989.  Reconstructed northern hemisphere annual
temperature since 1671 based on high-latitude tree-ring data from North America.
Climatic Change 14:39-59 ( tree ring data stored in the NGDC databank Boulder, 
Colo)

National Geophysical Data Center 1994.  The International Tree-Ring Data Bank. 
World Data Center-A for Paleoclimatology, N.O.A.A., U.S. Department of Commerce,
Boulder, Colo, USA

Olsen, J.S., J.A. Watts and L.J. Allison, 1983.  Carbon in live vegetation of
major world ecosystems. ORNL-5862.  Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge,
Tennessee, USA.

Statistics Canada 1992. Yearly roundwood production data, 1926-1990.  Statistics
Canada. Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

United Nations, 1992.  Forest Products, 1970-1990.  FAO Forestry Series No. 25
/FAO Statistics Series No. 103, FAO Yearbook 1990.  Food and Agriculture
Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. 332 pp.

U.S.D.A. Forest Service 1916-1990.  Annual forest fire reports.  Fire and
Aviation Management Division, USDA Forest Service, Independence at 14th Street,
Washington, DC. USA.
 
U.S.D.A. Forest Service 1958.  Timber resources for America's future.  Forest
Resource Report No. 14, USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC. USA.

U.S.D.A. Forest Service 1964.  The demand and price situation for forest
products, 1964.  Miscellaneous Publication No. 983. USDA Forest Service, 
Washington, DC. USA.

U.S.D.A. Forest Service 1965.  Timber trends in the United States.  Forest
Resource Report No. 17, USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC. USA.

U.S.D.A. Forest Service 1965.  U.S. timber production, trade, consumption, and
price statistics, 1950-87.  Miscellaneous Publication No. 1471. USDA Forest 
Service, Washington, DC. USA.

U.S.D.A. Forest Service 1990.  U.S. timber production, trade, consumption, and
price statistics, 1950-87.  Miscellaneous Publication No. 1486. USDA Forest 
Service, Washington, DC. USA.
 
================================================================================