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                                                         ORNL/CDIAC-97
                                                               NDP-058

          Geographic Patterns of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from
     Fossil-Fuel Burning, Hydraulic Cement Production, and Gas Flaring
       on a One Degree by One Degree Grid Cell Basis: 1950 to 1990


                            Contributed by

                           Robert J. Andres
       Institute of Northern Engineering, School of Engineering
          University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska

                            Gregg Marland
                   Environmental Sciences Division
         Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

                              Inez Fung *
     University of Victoria, British Columbia, Canada

                           Elaine Matthews *
               Columbia University, New York, New York

            * National Aeronautics and Space Administration
                 Goddard Institute for Space Studies
                          New York, New York

                  Prepared by Antoinette L. Brenkert
              Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center
         Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

        Environmental Sciences Division, Publication No. 4646
                      Date Published: March 1997

                           Prepared for the
                    Global Change Research Program
                   Environmental Sciences Division
             Office of Health and Environmental Research
                      U.S. Department of Energy
                 Budget Activity Number KP 12 04 01 0

                           Prepared by the
                    OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY
                   Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6335
                              managed by
                LOCKHEED MARTIN ENERGY RESEARCH CORP.
                               for the
                      U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY
                   under contract DE-AC05-96OR22464
 

  
                              ABSTRACT 

  Data sets of one degree latitude by one degree longitude carbon dioxide
(CO2) emissions in units of thousand metric tons of carbon (C) per year from
anthropogenic sources have been produced for 1950, 1960, 1970, 1980 and
1990  (Andres et al., 1996).  Detailed geographic information on CO2 emissions
can be  critical in understanding the pattern of the atmospheric and biospheric
response  to these emissions.  Global, regional and national annual estimates 
for 1950 through 1992 were published previously (Boden et al., 1996).  Those
national, annual CO2 emission estimates were based on statistics on fossil-fuel
burning,  cement manufacturing and gas flaring in oil fields as well as energy
production, consumption and trade data, using the methods of Marland and
Rotty (1984).  The national annual estimates were combined with gridded
one-degree data on political units and 1984 human populations (Andres et al .,
1996) to create the new gridded CO2 emission data sets.  The same population
distribution was used for each of the years as proxy for the emission 
distribution within each country. The implied assumption for that procedure 
was that per capita energy use and fuel mix is uniform over a political unit. 
The consequence of this first-order procedure is that the spatial changes 
observed over time are solely due to changes in national energy consumption 
and nation-based fuel mix.  Increases in emissions over time are apparent for 
most areas, e.g., from 1980 and 1990, a 63% increase in CO2 emissions (based 
on 1980 emissions) occurred in mainland China and a 95% increase in India.  
However, actual decreases from 1980 to 1990 occurred in Western Europe, i.e., 
30% in Sweden, 27% in France, and 23% in Belgium.  Latitudinal summations of 
emissions show a slow southerly shift (in the Northern Hemisphere) in the bulk
of emissions over time.  The large increases, from 1950 to 1990, in China's 
and India's contribution s to anthropogenic CO2 emissions compared to those by
the United States are, for example, very apparent at the latitudinal band 
around 25.5 degrees North.
  The digital data sets are available without charge, on a variety of 
media and via the Internet from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center
(CDIAC).  Each decadal CO2-emission data file requires around 1.2 megabytes
of disk storage; each decadal data file that has additional country code
information requires around 7.6 megabytes of disk storage, and the graphics
image format (gif) map files each require around 0.02 megabytes of disk 
storage.

OUTLINE OF THE DATABASE DOCUMENTATION

1. INTRODUCTION  
2. DESCRIPTION OF THE DATABASE, DATA SOURCES AND GRID CELL DISTRIBUTION 
3. GLOBAL TOTALS, LATITUDINAL DISTRIBUTIONS AND CHANGES OVER TIME IN CO2
   EMISSIONS.
4. FILE DESCRIPTIONS
   4.1  GRIDDED CO2 EMISSIONS  
   4.2  GRID CELL INFORMATION ON CO2 EMISSION, LOCATION, AND POLITICAL UNIT 
   4.3  UNDERLYING DATABASES AND CODES TO CREATE THE EXTENDED GRIDDED CO2 
        EMISSIONS FILES  
   4.4  LATITUDINAL SUMMARY AND MAPS 
5. CDIAC'S QUALITY ASSURANCE CHECKS  
6. HOW TO OBTAIN THE DATABASE AND DOCUMENTATION 
7. REFERENCES  


1. INTRODUCTION
   ------------ 
       Annual, global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from
     fossil-fuel burning, cement production and gas flaring show
     a steady increase from 1950 to 1990 (Boden et al., 1994 p.
     508; Boden et al., 1996 p. 24).  From 1959 through 1990 the
     global atmospheric CO2 concentrations increased from 316
     ppm to 354 ppm.  The global, regional and national annual
     estimates of anthropogenic CO2 emissions expressed in units
     of thousand metric tons carbon (C) per year have been
     documented by Boden et al. (1996).  The 1992 United
     Nations Energy Statistics Database (U.N.,1994), the hydraulic
     cement production estimates compiled by the U.S.
     Department of Interior's Bureau of Mines (Solomon, 1993),
     and supplemental data on gas flaring obtained from the U.S.
     Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration
     were processed for this purpose following the methods of
     Marland and Rotty (1984).  Estimates of anthropogenic
     emissions released to the atmosphere as CO2 in 1860 amount
     to 93.3 million metric tons C (Keeling, 1973), in 1950 to
     1638 million metric tons C and in 1990 to 6099 million
     metric tons C (Boden et al., 1996).
       The database documented here presents decadal (1950,
     1960, 1970, 1980 and 1990) estimates of gridded fossil-fuel
     CO2 emissions, expressed in 1000 metric tons C per year per
     one degree latitude by one degree longitude.  The CO2
     emissions are the summed emissions from fossil-fuel burning,
     hydraulic cement production and gas flaring.  The national
     annual estimates (Boden et al., 1996) were allocated to one
     degree grid cells based on gridded information on national
     boundaries and political units, and a 1984 gridded human
     population map (Andres et al., 1996).  Marland et al. (1985)
     note that using population distribution as a proxy for the
     distribution of CO2 emissions within a country offers a
     reasonable initial approximation but carries two implied
     assumptions that are clearly not filled: a) that per capita
     energy use is uniform over a political unit, and b) that the fuel
     mix is constant throughout a political unit.  In addition, it was
     assumed that the 1984 population distribution provides a
     useful first approximation of the within-country distribution
     of the CO2 emissions for each of the years between 1950 and
     1990.  (Note: the national CO2 emissions are U.N.-
     statistics-based).  The consequence of this first-order
     procedure is that the spatial changes observed are solely due
     to changes over time in national energy consumption and the
     nation-based fuel mix.
       The global CO2 emissions in this database are compared
     with previously published estimates.  Latitudinal summations
     are presented in a table and graph.  Maps of emission patterns
     are added as graphics image format (gif) files.  The database
     is part of an attempt by CDIAC to compile an integrated
     network of global gridded carbon flux and carbon storage
     information.  Locally specific information on fossil-fuel
     emissions might aid in analyzing global sources and sinks of
     CO2.
       In the future we hope to have more and different
     information available on energy use and population density,
     besides the 1984 population at a one degree grid resolution,
     so that CO2 emission estimates can be differently distributed
     over grid cells than presently.  Population changes at national
     levels and urbanization might be incorporated to get better
     insight into geographical shifts in fossil-fuel consumption,
     such that observational data on CO2-fertilization versus air
     pollution can be better analyzed.  The available fossil-fuel
     emission data, broken down in consumption sectors, as in
     Boden et al. (1996), might be put in geographic context, and
     then analyzed for purposes of potential policy decisions for
     curtailing emissions.  Previously, (Marland et al., 1985)
     estimated fossil-fuel emissions for 1980 at a 5 degree grid cell
     resolution.  Fung et al. (1987; http://www.giss.nasa.gov)
     generated publicly available databases: a one degree gridded
     database from the 1987 fossil-fuel emissions (after Marland
     et al., 1985), a one degree gridded database from 1980
     land-use change emissions (after Houghton et al., 1987), and
     a 4 by 5 degree gridded database of CO2 exchange of the
     oceans (Broecker et al., 1986).  The database documented
     here (NDP058) handles, as the previous ones, annual
     information.  Seasonal fossil-fuel emission might be put in a
     geographic referencable detailed database, both for carbon
     flux modeling and data analysis purposes, e.g., Fung et al.
     (1987) used their 4 by 5 degree gridded database of monthly
     CO2 exchange in their GISS 3-D global tracer transport
     model.  Carbon isotope signatures (13C/12C and 14C/12C data)
     can be incorporated as verification of fossil-fuel emission
     fate.  Ocean isotope signature data are available, as are CO2
     concentrations; these data put in a geographic grid, and
     analyzed could aid in the understanding of the temporal and
     spatial scales of the impacts of fossil-fuel emissions.



2. DESCRIPTION OF THE DATABASE, DATA SOURCES AND GRID CELL DISTRIBUTION
   --------------------------------------------------------------------

       This database (NDP058) consists of 33 files, 22 in
     ASCII text format and 11 in gif format listed in Tables 4.1,
     4.2, 4.3 and 4.4.  The database consists of this documentation
     file (the ndp058.doc or  README file) and the files
     described below.
       The GRIDCAR.year data consist of (five) single-field
     files for the years 1950, 1960, 1970, 1980 and 1990 with
     gridded CO2 emissions from anthropogenic sources (Table
     4.1).  The '1992 UN revision' data (U.N., 1994) of fossil-fuel
     CO2 emissions (units as 1000 metric tons C per year per
     one*one degree grid cell) are arranged sequentially as one
     record per line in bands starting with grid cells centered at
     179.5 degrees West through grid cells centered at 179.5
     degrees East, and from grid cells centered at 89.5 degrees
     North to grid cells centered at 89.5 degrees South.  The
     FORTRAN code READGRID.F is provided to read the
     GRIDCAR.year data files and sum the emissions to global
     totals.
       The GRIDALL.year data consist of (five) nine-field
     files for the years 1950, 1960, 1970, 1980 and 1990 (Table
     4.2).  Records in these files are arranged similarly from West
     to East and North to South.  They provide the same fossil-fuel
     emission information but have additional location and
     country-code information.  Grid cells are identified by the
     latitude and longitude coordinates of the midpoint of the grid
     cell and a Global Emissions Inventory Activity (GEIA)-id
     code.  The effort to put the national annual emissions on a
     one degree gridded basis was a contribution to GEIA.  The
     GEIA-id code equals [(j*1000)+i], where 'j' is a row number
     starting at 1 for the grid cell between 90 and 89 degrees South
     ('j' equals 180 for the grid cell between 89 and 90 degrees
     North) and 'i' is a column number starting at 1 for the grid cell
     between 180 and 179 degrees West ('i' equals 360 for the grid
     cell between 179 and 180 degrees East).  In other words,
     latitude equals [(j-91)+0.5] and longitude equals
     [(i-181)+0.5].  Analogous to the national annual CO2
     emission database (Boden et al., 1996: CDIAC NDP030/R6,
     Table 1 and Table 2), the gridded emission database has
     national identifiers in the form of the United Nations
     recognized country's name and the United Nations 3-digit
     country code for each grid cell.
       A gridded population data set, with population estimates
     for the year 1984 was used to allocate the national annual
     emissions over the grid cells.  The population and political
     unit data sets were obtained from the Goddard Institute of
     Space Studies (GISS).  The initial NASA-GISS gridded
     population data set (POP1X1.1984) and the initial
     NASA-GISS gridded political unit data set
     (CNTRY1X1.1993) were adjusted by Andres et al. (1996) to
     ensure that for each of the dates (1950, 1960, 1970, 1980,
     1990) existing countries were represented, the populations
     were associated with the proper political units, and the
     available national emission estimates were properly
     distributed over that country's area using population.
       The initial one degree gridded NASA-GISS population
     density data set (POP1X1.1984) describes the 1984
     worldwide distribution of human population densities.  It was
     constructed, following a method identical to Lerner et al.
     (1988), placing all urban centers with more than 100,000
     inhabitants into the appropriate grid cells.  Then, the sum of
     the urban populations for a political unit was subtracted from
     the total population for that political unit.  The remaining
     rural and smaller urban populations were evenly distributed
     among cells showing human land use as defined by Matthews
     (1983).  The aim of the NASA-GISS population density data
     set was to yield a geographically correct, rather than a
     politically correct population distribution (POP1X1.HELP).
     This population density data set was first converted by
     Andres et al. (1996) to total population per grid cell by
     multiplying the population density with the cell surface area.
     The data set was then modified by relocating 43 border urban
     area populations into the nearest cell identified with the
     correct political unit.  In addition 95 coastal urban areas were
     reassigned from ocean to the correct political unit (but not
     moved to the nearest cell) (see also CNTRY1X1.HELP).
     Andres' modifications resulted in the POPMOD.DAT data
     file.  Thus, no geographical changes of populations over time
     within a country or political unit were taken into account.
       The initial one degree gridded NASA-GISS political unit
     data set (CNTRY1X1.1993) contains 186 countries, with 9 of
     these further subdivided into 168 provinces, states, or
     regions.  Each grid cell was assigned to the spatially dominant
     political unit, with the exception that small countries and
     island nations were assigned a grid cell, even when not
     dominant.  Andres et al. (1996) added 15 political units and
     10 subdivisions (e.g., Bangladesh and Pakistan were the
     combined E&W Pakistan before 1972) that occur in the U.N.
     energy statistics but not in the original GISS data set.  Andres'
     changes resulted in the CNTYMOD.DAT data file.
       The GRIDALL.year files contain most supporting
     information discussed above, that is, information for each
     grid cell on the GEIA-id code, the latitude and longitude
     coordinates of the center of the grid cell, the CO2 emissions,
     the date-dependent information on the U.N. country-id, the
     U.N. country name, the NASA-GISS country-id, the
     NASA-GISS country/state/province-id and the NASA-GISS
     country/state/province name. The gridded population data
     were kept as a separate available file.  The FORTRAN code
     READALL.F and the SASTM code ALL.SAS are provided
     to read the GRIDALL.year data files.
       Background data sets (Table 4.3) in this database include
     the POPMOD.DAT data file and for the political unit
     information the CNTYMOD.DAT data file. Both files are
     arranged similarly to the GRIDCAR.year data files in that
     they are arranged sequentially as one record per line in bands
     starting with grid cells centered at 179.5 degrees West to grid
     cells centered at 179.5 degrees East, and from grid cells
     centered at 89.5 degrees North to grid cells centered at 89.5
     degrees South (64800 lines).  The CNTRY1X1.COD file
     identifies the NASA-GISS country/state or province names
     and their NASA-GISS-id country/state or province code (355
     lines).  The GISSUN.COD file translates the NASA-GISS-id
     country code to the UN-id/UN country name and codes (217
     lines).
       The remaining background files are the FORTRAN files
     to read the POPMOD.DAT and CNTYMOD.DAT files (READMOD.F), and 
     the CNTRY1X1.COD and GISSUN.COD files (READCODE.F).  Lastly, 
     the FORTRAN program INTEGRAT.F shows how the background files 
     (GRIDCAR.year, CNTYMOD.DAT, CNTRY1X1.COD and GISSUN.COD) were 
     incorporated when combined with the changes over time in the 
     political unit names.  Executing the INTEGRAT.F code results in 
     the GRIDALL.year files.  The README file comprises this
     documentation.
       Summary data sets (Table 4.4) in this database are (a) an
     ASCII file of the latitudinal summations of the gridded CO2
     emissions for the different years (LAT.TAB) and a graphic
     representation (LAT.gif) of the same information, and (b)
     world maps of the gridded CO2 emissions for the different
     years in gif formats.  The AMAP files (AMAP90.gif, AMAP80.gif, 
     AMAP70.gif, AMAP60.gif, and AMAP50.gif) are very similar to the 
     by Andres et al. (1996) published maps, but revised for the 
     Puerto Rico and Unites States emissions (see sections 3 and 5).  
     The AMAP maps are based on CO2 emissions in units of million 
     metric tons C/year/gridcell.  The BMAP maps (BMAP90.gif,
     BMAP80.gif, BMAP70.gif, BMAP60.gif and BMAP50.gif)
     are based on CO2 emissions that are standardized for grid cell
     area (g C/year/m2).

3. GLOBAL TOTALS, LATITUDINAL DISTRIBUTIONS AND CHANGES OVER TIME IN CO2
   EMISSIONS
   ---------------------------------------------------------------------

       Reported estimates of global totals of CO2 emissions and
     globally summed national CO 2 emissions differ (Table 3.1).
     Boden et al. (1996) present four reasons why the sums of the
     estimated emissions from all countries (columns 3 and 4,
     Table 3.1) are not equal to the estimates given for global total
     emissions (column 2, Table 3.1):
      1)  Global totals include emissions from bunker fuels
               whereas these are not included in any national totals.
               Bunker fuels are fuels consumed by ships and aircraft
               engaged in international transportation.
      2)  Global totals include estimates for the oxidation of
               non-fuel hydrocarbon products whereas national totals
               do not.
      3)  Global totals do not include annual changes in fuel
               stocks whereas annual changes in fuel stocks are
               included in national totals.
      4)  There are statistical anomalies in the international
               statistics: for example, the sum of exports from all
               exporters is not identical to the sum of imports for all
               importers.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Table 3.1  CO2 Emissions in million metric tons of C per year
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
YEAR 	Global Totals   Summed National Emissions     Summed National Emissions 
        NDP030/R6 p 24	from NATIONS92.EMS file       from Gridded Files
                        from NDP030/R6 (+ Bunkers)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1950	1638 a	 	1587 (+ 35) a		      1589 b	
1960 	2586 		2505 (+ 65) 		      2505 
1970 	4084 		3861 (+120) 		      3861 
1980 	5290 		5043 (+125) 		      5043 	
1990	6099		5811 (+115)		      5812 c
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 
      With regard to Table 3.1 three more points have to be
     made.  References to the points are marked in the table.
     (a) Emissions from bunker fuels are included in the global
     totals (second column) and are listed within parenthesis under
     the summed national emissions (third  column).  The bunkers
     can be added to the summed national emissions (columns
     three and four) to compare those with the global totals listed
     in the second  column.  Bunker fuel consumption generally
     accounts for roughly half the difference between the global
     totals and the sum of the national emissions.
     (b) The difference in 1950 for the summed national emissions
     (columns three and four) is because calculating national
     emissions for Iran yields negative numbers (export is 1.5
     units more than production);  this negative number is set to
     zero in the gridded data file.
     (c) The difference in 1990 for the summed national emissions
     (columns three and four) is because the Netherlands Antilles
     exported 0.3 units more than production, resulting in a
     negative value that is incorporated in column three and set to
     zero in the gridded database.
 
      Andres et al. (1996) summed the gridded emissions over
     the latitudinal bands (file 22) and noted changes in the
     prominent peaks, e.g., the peak at 51.5 degrees
     North shows a constant increase of 40 million metric tons C
     per decade up to 1980, while a decrease of 10 million metric
     tons occurs between 1980 and 1990.  Table 3.2 quantifies the
     shifts in the peaks over time for the major contributing
     countries as percent contribution of the CO2 emissions of the
     summed latitudinal emissions.  The graphs and tables
     presented in this database are, however, revised for Puerto
     Rico's emission, which Andres et al. (1996) based on the U.S.
     per capita emissions while here it is based on Puerto Rico's
     U.N. emission estimates (Boden et al., 1996).  The emission
     levels of the 50 states of the United States were revised
     accordingly.
      The latitudinal CO2 emission distribution shows a continuous 
     slow shift southward towards mid-northern latitudes.  The general 
     latitudinal shift is due to different growth rates in emissions 
     in different countries. It does not contain any changes within 
     countries because the within-country population distribution is 
     always based on the 1984 data.  Decreasing relative contributions 
     to the summed latitudinal CO2 emissions (Table 3.2) are in general 
     due to the relative slower increase in emissions of certain countries
     compared to other countries.  Actual decreases occur between
     northern latitudes 54 to 47 (file 22).  These actual decreases
     in CO2 emissions took place between 1980 and 1990 mainly
     in Western Europe and Poland, and to a slight degree in
     Canada.  In the Southern Hemisphere the only and very minor
     decrease (less than 4% of the latitudinal sum) took place
     between 13 and 15 degrees South, because of fluctuating
     Uruguay emissions.
      It has to be noted that the changes listed for the
     latitudinal summations, and the changes for countries, listed
     in tables 3.3 and 3.4 are dependent on what years the
     emissions are compared.  Differences might be larger or
     smaller for other 10-year comparisons (see Boden et al., 1996
     for yearly national emissions).

-------------------------------------------------------------------------
Table 3.2   Latitudinal emissions in units of thousand metric tons C 
per year and the percent contribution by the major CO2 emitting 
countries relative to the total latitudinal CO2 emissions.  
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
Latitude/   		  1950 	  1960 	  1970 	  1980 	  1990
countries 
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
52-51 degrees N 	 87276	129250	169181	198685	188591   
  U.K.			   39%     31%     26%     20%     20%
  E. Germany               18%     20%     20%     18%     17%
  W. Germany               13%     15%     12%     11%     12%
  U.S.S.R.                 11%     16%     19%     24%     27%
  Poland                    8%     10%     11%     15%     12%
42-41 degrees N		104848	138532 	212429 	253227 	287932  
  U.S.A.                   88%     77%     73%     65%     61%
  U.S.S.R.                  7%      9%     10%     12%     11%
  China                     1%      5%      4%      6%      8%
35-34 degrees N 	 55068	 83560	135136	167200	205633  
  U.S.A.                   87%     66%     59%     51%     44%
  Japan                     8%     13%     25%     24%     23% 
  China                     3%     18%     11%     17%     22%
26-25 degrees N 	 12673	 24652 	 37188 	 61846 	 88474  
  U.S.A.                   70%     41%     40%     25%     19%
  India                    11%     10%     11%     12%     16%
  China                     7%     36%     24%     27%     31%
  Mexico                    5%      6%      6%      9%      8%
19-18 degrees N  	  2395    6152   13973   24305   30166  
  India                    36%     25%     18%     18%     29%  
  Puerto Rico              28%     32%     23%     16%     11%
  Mexico                   21%     17%     12%     17%     17%
  U.S. Virg.Isl.            0%      1%     19%     17%      7%
11-10 degrees N  	  5291    8390   13909   18078   25188  
  Venezuela                81%     77%     65%     56%     51% 
  India                    10%     11%     11%     15%     21%
  Nigeria                   1%      1%      5%     12%     11%
33-34 degrees S  	  6636   10702   17228   23607   30883  
  Australia                51%     51%     51%     53%     53%
  South Africa             30%     30%     29%     30%     31%
  Chile                    14%     14%     16%     13%     13% 
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
       Changes from 1980 to 1990 in total emissions of the top
     emitting countries are listed in Table 3.3.  In addition, the
     increase as percent from 1980 emissions over 10 years are
     listed as are net per capita changes.  The per capita values are
     obtained from Boden et al. (1996) and can not be calculated
     from this database.  Boden et al. (1996) used annual
     population data provided by the United Nations, not the 1984
     population database.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Table 3.3  Changes in fossil-fuel CO2 emissions from 1980 to 1990 in the top 
emitting countries
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Country		Emission increase	% increase	   Per capita change
                in 1000 metric tons C   from 1980 to 1990  in metric tons C
                per year                		   per year
                from 1980 to 1990       		   from 1980 to 1990
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
China 	   	254297 		 	63%		   +0.16
India 	   	 90640 		 	95%		   +0.08
U.S.S.R.   	 89982 		 	10%		   +0.02
U.S.A. 	   	 85915 		 	 7%		   -0.13
Japan 	   	 40683 		 	16%		   +0.21
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

       Major emission changes between the years 1980 and 1990
     in other countries are listed in Table 3.4.  These listings,
     ordered according to the magnitude of total change, might aid
     in the interpretation of the latitudinal emission distribution,
     and in changes that occur in the mapped emissions.
            Andres et al. (1996) published maps of the gridded
     fossil-fuel emission rates in units of million tons C per grid
     cell per year.  These maps, corrected for the Puerto Rico and
     U.S.A emissions, are available in this database (Table 4.4:
     AMAP*.*.gif) as are maps based on log transformed emission
     rates that are standardized for grid cell area [log (g C/m2);
     BMAP*.*.gif].  Grid cell surface areas for those maps were
     calculated based on latitude following NASA-GISS' grid cell
     calculations.  Because of the differences in processing and the
     selection of scale break-points and colors, differences over
     time in the maps are visualized somewhat differently.  For
     example, a greater visual differentiation in emissions in the
     Southern Hemisphere occurs at the cost of less visual
     differentiation in emissions in the Northern Hemisphere in the
     second set of maps.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Table 3.4  Major changes in fossil-fuel emissions from 1980 to 1990 in other 
countries
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Country 		Change in emissions	% change
 			in 1000 metric tons C 	from 1980 to 1990
       	                per year 
               	        from 1980 to 1990
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Dem. P. Rep. of Korea 	+32847 			+ 96%
Republic of Korea 	+31683 			+ 92%
Iran 			+26125 			+ 82%
South Africa 		+21062 			+ 36%
Turkey 			+18939 			+ 91%
Australia 		+17260 			+ 31%
Indonesia 		+16574 			+ 64%
Thailand 		+15058 			+138%
Mexico 			+15910 			+ 23%
-----------------------
France 			-35527 			- 27%
Poland 			-30252 			- 24%
Federal Rep. Germany 	-23952 			- 12%
Romania 		- 9920 			- 19%
Czechoslovakia 		- 8458 			- 13%
Belgium 		- 8150 			- 23%
Sweden 			- 5857 			- 30%
U.K. 			- 5085 			-  3%
Hungary 		- 4486 			- 20%
Netherlands 		- 3669 			-  9%
Denmark 		- 3335 			- 19%
Canada 			- 3239 			-  3%
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------


4. FILE DESCRIPTIONS
   -----------------
 
            This section describes the content and format of each of the
     33 files comprising this NDP (Tables 4.1, 4.2, 4.3 and 4.4).
     File names and a brief description of the files are given.

4.1  GRIDDED CO2 EMISSIONS
     --------------------- 

            The five single-field GRIDCAR.year data files are the
     '1992 UN revision' (U.N., 1994) data of fossil-fuel CO2
     emissions (1000 metric tons C/one*one degree grid cell/year)
     arranged sequentially as one record per line in bands starting
     with grid cells centered at 179.5 degrees West to grid cells
     centered at 179.5 degrees East, and from grid cells centered
     at 89.5 degrees North to grid cells centered at 89.5 degrees
     South.
            The FORTRAN 77 code (READGRID.F) is provided to
     read the GRIDCAR.year data files.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Table 4.1  Single-field CO2 emission file names, sizes, types and format
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
File names                                file size    data type     format
and description                            (bytes)                      
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.  GRIDCAR.90                             1231200
    1990 CO2 emissions estimates for                       real         f18.6
    one degree by one degree grid cells
    (thousand metric tons C per year)
2.  GRIDCAR.80                             1231200
    1980 CO2 emissions estimates                           real         f18.6
    (thousand metric tons C per year)
3.  GRIDCAR.70                             1231200
    1970 CO2 emissions estimates                           real         f18.6
    (thousand metric tons C per year)
4.  GRIDCAR.60                             1231200
    1960 CO2 emissions estimates                           real         f18.6
    (thousand metric tons C per year)
5.  GRIDCAR.50                             1231200
    1950 CO2 emissions estimates                           real         f18.6
    (thousand metric tons C per year)
6.  READGRID.F                                1902 
    FORTRAN code to read files 1 through 5
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.2  GRID CELL INFORMATION ON CO2 EMISSION, LOCATION AND POLITICAL UNIT
     ------------------------------------------------------------------ 

            The five nine-field GRIDALL.year data files, provide the
     same information on the CO2 emissions due to fossil-fuel
     burning, gas flaring and cement production as the GRIDCAR
     files, but also information on the grid cell with regard to the
     latitude and longitude coordinates, the GEIA-id code, the
     UN-id and accompanying country name, and the NASA-GISS
     country and political unit codes and name.    The FORTRAN
     77 code (READALL.F) and SASTM code (ALL.SAS) are
     provided to read the GRIDALL files.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Table 4.2  Nine-field file names, sizes, types and format
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
File names                                  file size    data type     format
and description                              (bytes)                      
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 7. GRIDALL.90                               7646400
    Files 7 through 11 contain the following 
    information for each grid cell:
       GEIA-cell-id                                     character          a6
       latitude (degrees)                                    real        f6.1
       longitude (degrees)                                   real        f6.1
       CO2 emissions (1000 metric tons C per year)           real       g12.6
    and date-dependent information:             
       U.N. country-id                                    integer          i3
       U.N. country name                                character         a40
       NASA-GISS country-id                               integer          i6
       NASA-GISS country/state,province-id                integer          i6
       NASA-GISS country/state,province name            character         a14
 8. GRIDALL.80                               7646400
    Same content as file 7, except 1980 data
 9. GRIDALL.70                               7646400
    Same content as file 7, except 1970 data
10. GRIDALL.60                               7646400
    Same content as file 7, except 1960 data
11. GRIDALL.50                               7646400
    Same content as file 7, except 1950 data
12. READALL.F                                   1487
    FORTRAN code to read files 7 through 11
13. ALL.SAS                                     2770                       
    SAS* code to process files 7 through 11
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------


4.3  UNDERLYING DATABASES AND CODES TO CREATE THE EXTENDED GRIDDED 
     CO2 EMISSION FILES 
     -------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
          Table 4.3 lists the files and information used to create the
     GRIDALL.year files from the GRIDCAR.year files.  The FORTRAN 77 
     code INTEGRAT.F uses the GRIDCAR.year files, the CNTYMOD.DAT, the 
     CNTRY1X1.COD and the GISSUN.COD as input and generates the GRIDALL.year
     files. The POPMOD.DAT and CNTYMOD.DAT files can be read by the 
     READMOD.F FORTRAN 77 code; the CNTRY1X1.COD and GISSUN.COD files can
     be read by the READCODE.F FORTRAN 77 code.  The README file is
     very similar to this document.


-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Table 4.3  Background File Names, Sizes, Types and Format
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
File names                                  File size    data type     format
and description                              (bytes)                      
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
14. POPMOD.DAT                               712800
    The 1984 population per grid cell                     integer        i10
15. CNTYMOD.DAT                              453600
    NASA-GISS country/state,province-id                   integer         i6
16. CNTRY1X1.COD                              28755
    NASA-GISS country-id and 
       country/state,province-id                          integer         i6
    NASA-GISS country and 
       country/state,province name                      character        a14
17. GISSUN.COD                                13888
    UN-id                                                 integer         i3
    NASA-GISS country-id                                  integer         i6
    UN country name                                     character        a42
18. READMOD.F                                   569
    FORTRAN code to read files 14 and 15
19. READCODE.F                                  968
    FORTRAN code to read files 16 and 17
20. INTEGRATE.F                               14171
    FORTRAN 77 code to integrate background files
21. ndp058.doc (README)
    This document
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------


4.4  LATITUDINAL SUMMARY AND MAPS
     ----------------------------
          Table 4.4 lists the summary files in this database.  The
     LAT.TAB is an ASCII file with the summed fossil-fuel emissions 
     for 1950, 1960, 1970, 1980 and 1990 of each latitudinal band 
     (thousand metric tons C/year/latitudinal band).  The LAT.gif 
     file is a visual representation of the same information.  The 
     AMAP90.gif, AMAP80.gif, AMAP70.gif, AMAP60.gif and AMAP50.gif 
     files are Andres et al.'s (1996) gridded fossil-fuel CO2 emission 
     maps (million metric tons C/year/grid cell); the BMAP90.gif, 
     BMAP80.gif, BMAP70.gif, BMAP60.gif and BMAP50.gif files are the
     log transformed, standardized for grid cell area emission rate
     maps (log(C emission/year/unit area)) which after transformation 
     are expressed in units of grams C per square meter (g C/year/m2).

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Table 4.4  Summary File Names, Sizes and Types 
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
File names                                              File size   File Type
and description                                           (bytes)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
22.  LAT.TABLE                                              11235   ASCII
     (thousand metric tons C/latitudinal band/yr)
23.  LAT.gif                                                17827   gif
     (thousand metric tons C/latitudinal band/yr)
24.  AMAP90.gif                                             19548   gif
     1990 world map of gridded CO2 emissions 
     (million metric tons C/grid cell/yr))
25.  AMAP80.gif                                             19534   gif
     1980 world map
     (million metric tons C/grid cell/yr))
26.  AMAP70.gif                                             19198   gif
     1970 world map
     (million metric tons C/grid cell/yr))
27.  AMAP60.gif                                             18328   gif
     1960 world map
     (million metric tons C/grid cell/yr))
28.  AMAP50.gif                                             17378   gif
     1950 world map
     (million metric tons C/grid cell/yr))
29.  BMAP90.gif                                             16804   gif
     1990 world map of gridded CO2 emissions 
     (log(C/unit area) >> g C/m2/yr)
30.  BMAP80.gif                                             16614   gif
     1980 world map
     (log(C/unit area) >> g C/m2/yr)
31.  BMAP70.gif                                             16735   gif
     1970 world map
     (log(C/unit area) >> g C/m2/yr)
32.  BMAP60.gif                                             16671   gif
     1960 world map
     (log(C/unit area) >> g C/m2/yr)
33.  BMAP50.gif                                             16700   gif
     1950 world map
     (log(C/unit area) >> g C/m2/yr)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
     
          Table 4.5 summarizes the number of countries and political units 
     involved in the database and the number of countries and political units 
     without information on CO2 emissions, e.g., Namibia and Lesotho.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Table 4.5  Overview of number of countries and political units involved.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
	# of countries identified	# of political units identified
	  with a UN-id			  with a NASA-GISS-id
	  (# without CO2 emissions)	  (# without CO2 emissions)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
1950 	  180 (28) 			  344 (33)
1960 	  196 (16) 			  360 (21)
1970 	  196 (5) 			  359 (10)
1980 	  195 (3)  			  358 (8)
1990 	  196 (4) 			  360 (8)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------


5. CDIAC QUALITY ASSURANCE CHECKS 
   ------------------------------
	An important part of the data packaging process at CDIAC involves the 
quality assurance (QA) of data before distribution.  To guarantee data of the 
highest possible quality, CDIAC performs extensive QA checks, examining the 
data for completeness, reasonableness, and accuracy.
	However, QA on the national CO2 emissions had been performed by CDIAC 
(NDP030/R6) prior to processing these emissions as a gridded database.  The 
following data checks were specifically performed for NDP058:

1) National totals were compared to reported global totals:
a) Grid cell values of fossil-fuel emissions were summed by country name in 
   SAS and the resulting national emissions were compared to a previously 
   published database of national emissions (NDP030/R6).  Summed gridded 
   national totals check out exactly with NDP030/R6's national totals, but:
b) Andres et al. (1996) allocated to Puerto Rico a population-based fraction of
   the total US emissions (UN code 840) (i.e., C emissions of 18786 thousand 
   metric tons for 1990), while the national emissions in NDP030/R6 had for 
   Puerto Rico (UN code 630) a separately calculated emission of ~6-fold less 
   than the population based fraction (i.e., 3193 thousand metric tons for 
   1990).  This population based fraction, allocated to Puerto Rico, was in 
   the NDP030/R6 appropriately allocated to the 50 states of the U.S.A. (total 
   of 1322212 thousand metric tons for 1990).  This has now been corrected, 
   based on the NDP030/R6 data, for each of gridded database files.
c) The national total emissions reported in NDP030/R6 had failed to
   replace UN code 887 by UN code 886 for 1990's cement production (113 
   thousand metric tons C per year (Yemen). Democratic Yemen (UN code 720) and 
   Yemen (UN code 886) merged on 22 May, 1990 to form a single state (UN code 
   887). For 1990, the separation between Democratic Yemen and former Yemen 
   should have been maintained for all emissions and UN code 887 should not 
   have been in the database.  Therefore, the 1990 cement emission allocation 
   of Yemen was not incorporated in the gridded database of Andres et al.
   (1996).  This has now been corrected.

2) Converting negative emission values to zero: 
   Fossil fuel emissions for Iran for 1950 and for the Netherlands Antilles 
   for 1990 were set to zero.  Negative emissions were calculated and reported 
   for these two instances in NDP030/R6 because exports of fossil fuels were 
   larger than the sum of gross production and imports.

3) Bunker Summations: 
   An additional QA was performed on the NDP30/R6 while collecting information 
   for Table 3.1.  Due to SAS not performing any calculations when missing 
   values occur as any of the elements in an equation, the summation of bunkers
   could not be performed correctly using the SAS program in the NDP030/R6.  
   Replacement of missing values by zeros has corrected this potential error 
   in using the NDP030/R6 database.


6. HOW TO OBTAIN THE DATABASE AND DOCUMENTATION
   --------------------------------------------

     This database (NDP058) and the related NDP030/R6 database are available 
free of charge from CDIAC.  The files are available from CDIAC's anonymous FTP 
(file transfer protocol) area via the Internet.  Obtaining the data from 
CDIAC's anonymous FTP area requires a computer with FTP software and access 
to the Internet.  Commands used to obtain the database are shown below. For 
additional information, contact CDIAC.

>ftp cdiac.esd.ornl.gov  or  >ftp 128.219.24.36
Login: anonymous
Password: YOU@your internet address
Guest login ok, access restrictions apply.
ftp> cd pub/ndp058
ftp> dir
ftp> mget files
ftp> quit

Uncompress files on workstation 

CDIAC's World Wide Web home page's address: http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov 

	For non-FTP data acquisitions (e.g., IBM- or MacIntosh-formatted floppy
diskettes; 8200 or 8500 format 8-mm tape), users may request data from 
CDIAC using the following information:

Address: Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center
         Oak Ridge National Laboratory
         P.O. Box 2008
         Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6335, U.S.A.

Telephone:       (423) 574-3645 (Voice)
                 (423) 574-2232 (Fax)
Electronic mail: cdiac@ornl.gov


All GEIA information is available through anonymous FTP: 
ftp ncardata.ucar.edu.
cd pub/GEIA

All NASA-GISS referenced information is available through anonymous FTP:
ftp nasagiss.giss.nasa.gov.


7. REFERENCES
   ----------
Andres, R.J., G. Marland, I. Fung, and E. Matthews.  1996.  A one degree by one
degree distribution of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel consumption 
and cement manufacture, 1950-1990.  Global Biogeochemical Cycles 10:3:419-429

Boden, T.A., G. Marland, and R.J. Andres, 1996. Estimates of global, regional, 
and national annual CO2 emissions from fossil-fuel burning, hydraulic cement 
production, and gas flaring: 1950-1992, Rep. ORNL/CDIAC-90, NDP-030/R6, 
600 pp., Oak Ridge Nat. Lab., Oak Ridge, Tenn.

Boden, T.A., D.P. Kaiser, R.J. Sepanski and F.W. Stoss, 1994. Trends '93, A 
Compendium of Data on Global Change.  Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis 
Center, World Data Center-A for Atmospheric Trace Gases.  Environmental 
Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tenn. 37831-6335.

Broecker, W.S. et al., 1986. Isotopic versus micrometeorological ocean CO2 
fluxes: A serious conflict. J. Geophys. Res. 91:10517-10527.

Fung, I., C.J. Tucker and K.C. Prentice, 1987.  Application of AVHRR 
vegetation index to study atmosphere-biosphere exchange of CO2. J. Geophys. 
Res. 92:2999-3015. 

Houghton, R.A. et al., 1987.  The flux of carbon from terrestrial ecosystems 
to the atmosphere in 1980 due to changes in land use:  geographic distribution
of global flux.  Tellus 39B:122-139.

Keeling, C.D., 1973. Industrial production of carbon dioxide from fossil-fuels 
and limestone. Tellus 25:174-198.

Lerner, J., E. Matthews and I. Fung, 1988. Methane emissions from animals: A 
global high-resolution database.  Global Biochemical Cycles, 2:139-156.

Marland, G., and R.M. Rotty, 1984. Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuels: 
A procedure for estimation and results for 1950-1982. Tellus 36(B):232-261.

Marland, G, R.M. Rotty and N.L. Treat, 1985.  CO2 from fossil fuel burning: 
Global distribution of emissions.  Tellus 37(B):243-258.

Matthews, E. 1983. Global vegetation and land use: New high-resolution data 
bases for climate studies. J. Clim. Appl. Meteorol., 22:474-487.

Solomon, C., 1993. Cement. In Cement Minerals Yearbook-1992. U.S. Department 
of Interior, Bureau of Mines, Washington, D.C.

United Nations, 1994. 1992 Energy Statistics Yearbook.  United Nations 
Statistical Division (UNSTAT), 2 United Nations Plaza, New York. N.Y. 10017
_______________________________________________________________________________