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Acronyms and Abbreviations

Contents taken from Global Change Acronyms and Abbreviations, 1995. ORNL/CDIAC-83, Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Edited by: Cindy T. Woodard and Frederick W. Stoss.

Can't find an acronym you're looking for in our listing? Try the listing, and additional links, maintained by the U.S. Global Change Research Information Office.

 

A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z

A

A-S		Arakawa-Schubert
A-SAR		Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar
A-SCAT		Advanced scatterometer
A%C		Animal population ratio living in cool climate region
AA		atomic absorption
AAAS		American Association for the Advancement of Science
AABW 		Antarctic Bottom Water
AAF		Association Aeronautique et Astronautique de France
AAG		American Association of Geographers
AAIW 		Antarctic Intermediate Water
AAOE		Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment
AARI 		Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (Russian Federation)
AAS		atomic absorption spectrometry (spectrometer, spectroscopy)
AASE		Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition
AASP		American Association of Stratigraphic Palynologists
AASSREC		Association of Asian Social Science Research Councils
AATSR		advanced along-track scanning radiometer
AAWORD		Association of African Women for Research and Development
ABE		Advisory Board on Energy (India)
ABL		atmospheric boundary layer
ABLE		Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment
ACA		Advanced Computer Applications (project)
ACABQ		Advisory Committee on Administrative and Budgetary Questions
ACARS		Aircraft Communication and Recording System
ACARS		ARINC Communications and Reporting
		System
ACAST		Advisory Committee on the Application of Science and Technology to
		Development (UN)
ACATS		Airborne Chromatograph for Atmospheric Trace Species
ACC		Administrative Coordination Committee (ECOSOC)
ACC		Air Combat Command (formerly TAC)
ACC		Antarctic Circumpolar Current
ACCI		Advisory Committee on Climate Applications and Data (WMO)
ACCLAIM		ACC Levels by Altimetrics and Island Measurements
ACCM		Atmospheric General Circulation Model
ACCP		Atlantic Climate Change Programme
ACD		Aeronautical Charting Division (NOS)
ACE-1		Southern Hemisphere Marine Aerosol Characterization Experiment (IGAC)
ACE-2		North Atlantic Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment (IGAC)
ACE		Advisory Committee on the Environment (ICSU)
ACE		Aerosol Characterization Experiment (IGAC)
ACE		Atmospheric Chemistry Education in Global Change (IGAC)
ACGIH		American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists
ACH4		Annual methane (CH4) emission from enteric fermentation
ACHEX 		Aerosol Characterization Experiment
ACID		Acidification Chemistry Information Data Base (BNL)
ACL		alternate concentration level
ACM		advanced climate model
ACMAD		African Centre of Meteorological Applications for Development
ACP		Atmospheric Chemistry Program (DOE)
ACR		active cavity radiometer
ACRIM		active cavity radiometer irradiance monitor
ACS		American Chemical Society
ACSM		American Congress of Surveying and Mapping
ACSYS		Arctic Climate System Study (WCRP)
ACTM		Atmospheric chemical transport model
ACTS		African Centre for Technology Studies
A.D.		anno Domini
ADAAC		Affiliated Distributed Active Archive Center
ADALT		Advanced Radar Altimeter
ADB		Asian Developing Bank
ADC		Affiliated Data Center
ADCLS		Advanced Data Collection and Location System
ADCP 		Accoustic Doppler Current Profiler
ADDNET		Acid Deposition Data Network (EPA)
ADEOS		Advanced Earth Observation Satellite (Japan)
ADEOS		Advanced Earth Observing System
ADMC		Agri-residue dry matter content
ADP		automatic data processing
ADPE		automatic data processing equipment
AE		Atmosphere Explorer
AEC		U.S. Atomic Energy
		Commission (now DOE)
AEDD		Arctic Environment Data Directory
AEEI		Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Instrument
AEEI		Autonomous energy-efficiency index (improvements)
AEF		Average emission factor
AER		Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (Cambridge, Massachusetts)
AER		atmospheric and environmental research (DOE)
AERI		Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Instrument
AERI		Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer
AERI-FEP	AERI Front End Processor
AEROCE		Atmosphere/Ocean Chemistry Experiment
AES		Atmospheric Environment Service (Canada)
AEST		Australian Eastern Standard Time
AET		actual evapotranspiration
AF		Agri-residue used for animal feed
AFBC		Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustor
AFDM		ash free dry mass
AFEAS 		Alternative Fluorocarbons Environmental Acceptability Study
AFGL		Air Force Geophysics Laboratory
AFGWC		Air Force Global Weather Central (U.S.)
AFR		Africa
AFS		American Fisheries Society
AGA		American Gas Association
AGAGE		Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment
AGAL		Australian Government Analytical Laboratories
AGASP		Arctic Gas and Aerosol Sampling Programme
AGBD		Above ground biomass density
AGCM		Atmospheric General Circulation Model
AGID		Association for Geoscientists for International Development
AGL		above ground level
AGU		American Geophysical Union
Agr.		Agriculture (USDA)
AGRHYMET	Agronmeteorology and Operational Hydrology and Their Applications
AGU		American Geophysical Union
AGWAT		Agriculture and Water Project (JECOR)
AGWP 		Absolute Global Warming Potential
AH		Air Heater
AIAA		American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics
AIBS		American Institute of Biological Sciences
AIChE		American Institute of Chemical Engineers
AICRIP		All India Coordinated Programme for Rice Improvement
AID		Agency for International Development (U.S.)
AIDJEX 		Arctic Ice Dynamics Joint Experiment
AIHA		American Industrial Hygiene Association
AIJ		Activities Implemented Jointly
AIM		approximate inertial manifold
AIM 		Asian-Pacific Integrated Model
AIME		American Institute of Mining and Metallurgical Engineers
AIP		Algorithm Intercomparison Programme
AIP-1		Algorithm Intercomparison Project-1
AIP-2		Algorithm Intercomparison Project-2
AIP-3		Algorithm Intercomparison Project-3
AIREP		Aircraft Weather Report
AIRS		atmospheric infrared sounder
AIRS-AMSU	Atmospheric Infrared-Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit
AIRS/MHS	Advanced Infrared Radiometer Sounder (Atmospheric Infrared
		Sounder)/Microwave Humidity Sounder
AIS		airborne imaging spectrometer
AIT		Asian Institute of Technology
AITP		Arctic Ice Thickness Project (WCRP)
AJAX		1983 Oceanographic cruise along 0° Meridian into Weddell Sea
		(U.S., SIO)
AL		Aeronomy Laboratory (Boulder, Colorado) (ERL)
Al		aluminum
Al2O3		alumina (aluminum oxide)
ALA		American Library Association
ALACE		Autonomous Lagrangian Circulation Explorer
ALADIN		Atmospheric Laser Doppler Instrument
ALARA		as low as reasonably achievable
ALBIOS		Aluminum Biogeochemistry in Soils (EPRI)
ALE		Atmospheric Lifetime Experiment
ALE/GAGE	ALE/Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment
ALEXIS		Array of Low-Energy X-Ray Imaging Sensors
Alf		Grimco A-700 processor used for data analysis
ALFA		AER Local Forecast and Assimilation (Model)
ALIAS		Aircraft Laser Infrared Absorption Spectrometer
ALK		alkalinity
ALOHA		A Long-term Oligotrophic Habitat Assessment
ALPEX		Alpine Experiment
ALS		Adirondack Lake Survey (ALSC)
ALSC		Adirondack Lake Survey Corporation
ALSS		Aluminum in Streams Study (EPRI)
ALT		altimeter
ALT		Alert, Northwest Territories, Canada
ALTA		Active Long Term Archive
AMA		African Mountains Association
AMAD		activity median aerodynamic diameter
AMAP		Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme
AMBIACE		Amazon Biogeochemistry and Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment
AMD		Developing America
AmeDAS		Automated Meteorological Data Acquisition System
AMEX		Atlantic Meteorology Experiment
AM/FM		Automated Mapping/Facilities Management (Society)
AMI		active microwave instrumentation
AMIE		Automated Methane Instrument Evaluation
AMIGO		America's Inter-hemispheric Geobiosphere Organization
AMIP		Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project
AMMS		Advanced Multichannel Microwave Sensor
AMQUA		American Quaternary Association
AMRIR		advanced medium resolution imaging radiometer
AMS		accelerator mass spectrometry
AMS		American Mathematical Society
AMS		American Meteorological Society
AMS		Applied Mathematical Sciences (DOE)
AMSR		advanced microwave scanning radiometer
AMSU		advanced microwave sounding unit
AMSU-A		advanced microwave sounding unit-A
AMTS		advanced moisture and temperature sounder
AMU		atomic mass unit
ANARE		Australian National Antarctic Research Establishment
ANBS		Asian Network of Biological Sciences
ANC		acid-neutralizing capacity
ANL		Argonne National Laboratory
ANFC		Annual Natural Forest Cleared
ANL/ACRF	ANL's Advanced Computing Research Facility
Ann		annual
ANNEX I		Countries committed to a quantified CO2 target (OECD, EU, Central and Eastern European countries)
ANNEX II	OECD countries and EU
ANSI		American National Standards Institute
ANSTO		Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (Menai, New
		South Wales)
ANT		Antarctica (START)
ANTARES		Antarctic research (France) (JGOFS)
ANTARFIX	Antarctic fixed station (France) (JGOFS and WOCE)
ANU		Australian National University (Canberra, Australia)
AO		announcement of opportunity
AO		atmosphere-ocean
AOD		aerosol optical depth
AODC		acridine orange direct count
AOGCM		Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Model
AOIPS		Atmospheric and Oceanographic Information Processing System
AOL		Airborne Oceanographic Lidar
AOML		Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (Miami, Florida) (ERL)
AOSB		Arctic Ocean Sciences Board
AOSIS		Association of Small Island States
AOVP		Arctic Ocean Variability Project (ACSYS
ACSYS)
AP		Annual Production
APA		Adirondack Park Agency
APA		alkaline phosphatase activity
APAFO		Advanced Particles and Fields Observer
APAR		absorbed photosynthetically active radiation
APARE		East Asian-North Pacific Regional Experiment (IGAC)
APC		Apparent consumption
APCA		Air Pollution Control Association (Pittsburgh)
APDA		Arctic Precipitation Data Archive (ACSYS)
APEC		Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation Organization
APHA		American Public Health Association
API		American Petroleum Institute
APMP		Acid Precipitation Mitigation Program (NAPAP)
APN		Asia-Pacific Network (for Global Change Research) (START)
APSRS		Aerial Photo Summary Records System
APT		automatic picture transmission
AQA		American Quaternary Association
Ar		Argon
ARA		atmospheric radiation analysis
ARAC		Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (program)
ARC		Ames Research Center
ARC		Antarctic Research Center
ARC/INFO	GIS software
ARCS		Atmospheric Radiation and Cloud Station
ARCSS		Arctic System Science (program)
ARDB		Arctic Runoff Database (ACSYS)
ARGOS		Argos Data Collection and Position Location System (CNES and NOAA)
ARINC		Aeronautical Radio, Inc.
ARINC		Aeronautical Research, Inc.
ARISTOTELES	Applications and Research Involving Space Technologies Observing the
		Earth's Field from  a Low Earth Orbiting Satellite
ARL		Air Resources Laboratory, Silver Spring, Maryland (NOAA)
ARL		Australian Radiation Laboratory (Melbourne, Victoria)
ARM		Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (DOE program)
ARMA		Autoregressive moving-average
ARMSAT		Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Satellite
ARPA		Advanced Research Project Agency
ARRCC		Analysis of Rapid and Recent Climate Change (project)
ARS		Agricultural Research Service (USDA)
ARSMC		ASEAN Regional Specialized
		Meteorological Centre
ART		Arctica (START)
ARTEMIS		Advanced Relay and Technology Mission Satellite (ESA)
ARTEP		Ariane Technology Experiment Platform (European)
ARW		Advanced Research Workshop
AS		Anti-Spoofing on GPS Transmissions
AS		Area of Savanna
ASA		American Statistical Association
ASA		Antarctic Support Association
ASA		Atmosphere Spectroscopy Applications
ASB		Area of Savanna Burned annually
ASAP		Automated Shipboard Aerological Programme
ASAR		Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar
ASAS		Advanced Solid State Array Sensor
ASASP		Active Scattering Aerosol Spectrometer Probe
ASB		Association of Southeastern Biologists
ASCAT		advanced scatterometer
ASCATT		advanced scatterometer
ASCE		American Society of Civil Engineers
ASCEND		Agenda of Science for Environment and Development into the 21st
		Century
ASChE		American Society of Chemical Engineers
ASCII		American Standard Code for Information Interchange
ASCOT		Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (program)
ASCS		Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service
ASDAR		Aircraft-to-Satellite Data Relay
ASE		Air Sea Experiment
ASEAMS		Association of Southeast Asian Marine Scientists
ASEAN		Association of Southeast Asian Nations
ASF		Alaska SAR Facility
ASF		Atmospheric Stablization Framework
ASHOE		Airborne Southern Hemisphere Ozone Experiment
ASI		Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (Italian Space Agency)
ASK		Assisted Search for Knowledge
ASL		above sea level
ASL		atmospheric surface layer
ASLO		American Society of Limnology and Oceanography
ASM		Applied Simulation and Modelling (IASTED)
ASME		American Society of Mechanical Engineers
ASOEN		ASEAN Senior Officials on the Environment
ASOS		Automated Surface Observing System
ASPP		American Society of Plant Physiologists
ASPRS		American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing
ASR		aerosol solar radiation
ASSAS		Advanced Solid State Array Sensor
ASTER		Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection (radiometer)
ASTER		Atmosphere-Surface Turbulent Exchange
		Research (formerly ITIR)
ASTEX		Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment
ASTM		American Society for Testing and Materials (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania)
ASU		Air Separation Unit
ATES		Alcatel Espace Systems
ATDD		Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Division
		(formerly ATDL) (NOAA)
ATDL		Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion
		Laboratory (now ATDD)
ATF		atmospheric transmission factor
Atlantis	Research vessel (U.S.)
ATLAS		Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science
ATLAS		Airborne Turnable Laser Absorption Spectrometer
ATLID		atmospheric lidar
atm		atmosphere
ATM		Atmospheric Transport Model
ATMOS		Atmospheric Trace Molecules Observed by Spectroscopy
ATOVS		Advanced TOVS
ATP		adenosine triphosphate
ATPEX		ARM Tropical Pacific Experiment
ATS		Advanced Technology Satellite
ATS		Antarctic Treaty System
ATS		applications technology satellite
ATS		Advanced Turbine Systems
ATSR		along-track scanning radiometer
AURIO		Auroral Imaging Observatory
AV		acoustic velocity (geophysical logging)
AVCS		Advanced Vidicon Camera System
AVD		acoustic variable density (geophysical logging)
AVHRR		advanced very high resolution radiometer
		(NOAA)
AVHRR GAC	AVHRR Global Area Coverage
AVHRR LAC	AVHRR Local Area Coverage
AVIRIS		airborne visible and infrared imaging spectrometer
AVISCO		French group for Analysis, Validation, and Investigation of Satellite
		Oceanography
AVNIR		advanced visible and near-infrared radiometer
avtur		aviation gas turbine fuel
AWDB		Adirondack Watershed Data Base
AWIPS-90	Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System for the 90s
AWRA		American Water Resources Association
AWIS		Association for Women in Science
AWWA		American Water Works Association (Denver)
AXCTD		autonomous expendable CTD profiler

B

b/w		black and white
B%T		Animal population ratio living in temperate climate region
BaA		benz[a]anthracene
BAAS		British Association for the Advancement of Science
BAHC		Biospheric Aspects of the Hydrological Cycle
		(program) (IGBP)
BAHC-SSC	BAHC Scientific Steering Committee
BALTEX		Baltic Sea Experiment
BAO		Boulder Atmospheric Observatory
BaP		benzo[a]pyrene
BaPDE		chemically reactive diolepoxides
BAPMoN		Background Air Pollution Monitoring Network (WMO)
BASC		Board on Atmospheric Science and Climate,
		National Research Council (U.S.)
BARA		Pressure in Atmosphere
BASE		Beaufort and Arctic Storms Experiment (Canada)
BATAN		Reactor and Nuclear Research Facilities, National Atomic Energy Agency
BATERISTA	Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfers and Ecological Research in Situ Studies in
		Amazonia (BAHC and GEWEX)
BATGE		Biosphere-Atmosphere Trace Gas Exchange (in the tropics) (IGAC)
BATS		Bermuda Atlantic Time Series
BATS		Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (NCAR)
BAU		business-as-usual
b.a.u.		business as usual (scenario)
BB		Biomass Burned
BBHIR		broadband hemispherical in flux radiometer
BBHSR		broadband hemispherical solar radiometer
BBL		benthic boundary layer
bbl		barrels (of oil)
BBSR		Bermuda Biological Station for Research
BBSRC		Biotechnology and Biological Science Research Council
BBSS		balloon-borne sounding system
BBZ		benthic boundary zone
BC		black carbon
BCC		British Coal Corporation (U.K.)
BCD		Binary Coded Decimal
BCF		bioconcentration factor
BEMS		Bioelectromagnetics Society
BEST		Bilan Energetique du Systeme Tropical
Bet		Grimco A-700 processor used for data collection
BF		Biomass quantity burned in fields
BGC		biogeochemical cycle
BGL		British Gas Lurgi (gasifier)
BHD		designation of an ice core drilled in 1977 at Law Dome, Antarctica
BIA		Bureau of Indian Affairs (DOI)
BIBEX		Biomass Burning Experiment (IGAC)
BiE		Business in the Environment
BIGSTIG		biomass integrated gasifier steam-injected gas turbine
BIG-TT		BAHC-IGAC-GCTE Task Team
BIH		Bureau International de l'Heure
BIOME		global biome model
BIOMOVS		Biospheric Model Validation Study
BIOSYNOP	Biological Synoptic Ocean Prediction
BIOTRANS	biological transformations (site at 47°N 20°W)
BIOTROP		Regional Center for Tropical Biology
BIPM		Bureau International de Poids et Mesures
BLM		Bureau of Land Management (DOI)
BLS		"Basic Linked System" scenario
BMAP		Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program
BMC		Baltic Marine Cooperation
BMFT		Bundes Ministerium fur Forschung und Technologie (Germany)
BMG		Meteorological and Geophysics Agency
BMRC		Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre (Australia)
BMWT		Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology (Division) (DOE)
BNA		Block Numbering Area
BNAP		Basic Hydrological Network Assessment Project
BNL		Brookhaven National Laboratory
BNSC		British National Space Centre
BO		CH4 producing potential
BOB		Bureau of the Budget
BOC		Bureau of Census (DOC)
BOD		Biochemical Oxygen Demand
BODC		British Oceanographic Data Centre (Bidston)
BOF		basic oxygen furnace
BOFS		Biogeochemical Ocean Flux Study (U.K.)
BOM		benthic organic matter
BoM		Bureau of Meteorology (DASET)
BOR		Bureau of Reclamation (DOI)
BOREAS		Boreal Ecosystems Atmosphere Study
		(BAHC and GEWEX)
BORIS		BOREAS Information System
BP		before present
BPA		Bonneville Power Administration
BPKM		billion passenger kilo metre
BPPT		Agency for Assessment and Application of Technology (Indonesia)
Bq		Becquerel (symbol) (SI unit of activity of ionizing
		radiation source)
BRDF		bidirectional reflectance distribution function
BrO		bromine monoxide
BRW		Barrow Observatory (Barrow, Alaska) (CMDL)
Bs		Natural forest biomass burned onsite
BSIP		Birban Sahani Institute of Paleobotany
BSRN		Baseline Surface Radiation Network
BTCs		breakthrough curves (column-elution tests)
Btu		British thermal unit
BUFR		Binary Universal Form for the Representation (of data)
BuREC		Bureau of Reclamation (now WPR)
BUV		Backscatter Ultraviolet Radiometer
BVE		Barotropic vorticity equation
BW		bulk water
BWTP		Basalt Waste Isolation Project

C

13C		carbon-13 (carbon isotope with atomic weight of 13)
14C		carbon-14 (carbon isotope with atomic weight of 14)
C		carbon
C		Celsius, centigrade
C/A		Coarse/Acquisition GPS signal structure
C&W		Animal population ratio living in warm climate region
C-MACCS		Centre for Mathematical Modeling and Computer Simulation
C3AT		Ch3 Albedo Test (AVHRR)
ca.		circa
CAA		Central Arid Asia (START)
CAA		Clean Air Act (1970)
CAAP		Composition and Acidity of Southeast Asian Precipitation
CAC		Climate Analysis Centre (now CPC) (WMO)
CAC		Committee on Atmospheric Chemistry
CACGP		Commission on Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Pollution (IAMAS)
CAD		computer-aided design/ drafting/drawing
CADD		computer-aided design and drafting
CAeM		Commission for Aeronautical Meteorology (WMO)
CAF		Clean Air Facility
CAgM		Commission for Agricultural Meteorology (WMO)
Cal/Val		calibration/validation
CALCOFI		California Cooperative Fisheries Investigation
CAM		crassulacean acid metabolism
CAMS		Control and Monitoring System
CAO		cold air outbreak
CAP		Central Arizona Project (USBR)
CAPPI		Constant Altitude Plan Position Indicator
CAR		Caribbean (START)
CARBICE		Carbon Dioxide Intercalibration Experiment (IGAC)
CARDS		climatological aerological reference data set
CARS		Climate Applications Referral System
CARS		coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering
CART		Cloud and Radiation Testbed (ARM)
CAS		Chemical Abstract Series
CAS		Chinese Academy of Science
CAS		Commission for Atmospheric Sciences (WMO)
CASA		Inter-Union Commission on the Application of Science to Agriculture,
		Forestry, and Aquaculture (ICSU)
CASSAD		Centre for African Settlement Studies and Development
CAST		Chinese Academy of Science and Technology
CAT		computerized axial tomography
CBA		cost benefit analysis
CBO		Congressional Budget Office (U.S.)
CBS		Commission for Basic Systems (WMO)
CC		Combined Cycle
CCAM		Chikuko Cha Amayi M'Malawi (Women's NGO)
CCAQ		Consultative Committee on Administrative Questions
CCC		Canadian Climate Centre
CCCN		CDIAC Computing System Network
CCCO		Committee on Climate Changes and the Ocean (SCOR and IOC)
CCCP		California Institute of Technology Concurrent Computation Project
CCD		charge-coupled device (camera)
CCDB		Carbon content of dead biomass
CCDP		Climate Change Detection Project
CCGT		Combined Cycle Gas Turbine
CCI		Commission for Climatology (WMO)
CCIR		International Radio Consultative Committee (ITU)
CCITT		International Consultative Committee on Telegraphs and
		Telecommunications (ITU)
CCIW		Canadian Centre for Inland Waters
CCL		Central CO2 Laboratory, SIO (WMO)
CCLB		Carbon content of living biomass
CCM1		community climate model one
CCM2		community climate model two (NCAR)
CCM		community climate model
CCM0		Community Climate Model (NCAR)
CCM2		Community Climate Model (version 2)
CCMS		Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society
CCN		cloud condensation nuclei
CCOP		Committee for the Coordination of Joint Prospecting for Mineral
		Resources in Asian Offshore Areas (Indonesia)
CCRS		Canada Centre for Remote Sensing
CCSDS		Consultative Committee for Standard Data Services
CCT		computer-compatible tape
CD		Chemistry Division
CD		community development
CD		compact disc
CDAS		Climate Data Assimilation System
CDC		Control Data Corporation
CDCR		conceptual design and cost review
CDDIS		Crustal Dynamics Data Information System
CDF		common data format
CDIAC		Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center
		(formerly CDIC) (ORNL/DOE)
CDIC		Carbon Dioxide Information Center (now CDIAC)
CDMS		Cryospheric Data Management System
CDNC		Cloud drop number concentration
CDOS		Customer Data and Operations System
CDP		Crustal Dynamics Project (NASA)
CDRD		Carbon Dioxide Research Division
CD-ROM		compact disc-read only memory
CDRP		Carbon Dioxide Research Program
CDW		Circumpolar Deep Water
CE		Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy
CE		Combusion Efficiency
CEA		cause-and-effect analysis
CEA		Central Electricity Authority (India)
CEA		Council of Economic Advisors
CEA		Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (France)
CEAREX		Coordinated Eastern Arctic Experiment
CEC		cation exchange capacity
CEC		Commission of European Communities
CEDAR		Coupled Energetics and Dynamics of the Atmospheric Regions
CEDDA		Center for Experiment Design and Data Analysis (NOAA)
CEEM		Center for Energy and Environmental Management
CEES		Committee on Earth and Environmental Sciences
		(formerly CES; replaced by CENR)
CEI		Center for Environmental Information
CEM		cumulus ensemble model
CEMA		Council of Mutual Economic Aid (Russian Federation, formerly U.S.S.R.)
CEN		European Committee for Standardization (EC)
CENELEC		European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization (EC)
CENR		Committee on Environmental and Natural
		Resources (U.S. NCST)
CENTO		Central Treaty Organization
CEOS		Committee on Earth Observation Satellites
CEP		circular error probability
CEP		Comite Ecumenico de Proyectos
CEPAL		Comision Economica para America Latina (Spain) (ECLA)
CEPAL		Economic Commission for Latin America (Spain) (ECLA)
CEPEX		Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment
CEPT		Conference Europeenne des Administration des Postes et
		Telecommunications (European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications
		Administrations)
CEQ		Council on Environmental Quality (U.S.)
CER		carbon dioxide exchange rate
CERCLA		Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability
		Act (1980) (Superfund)
CERES		Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (EOS)
CERES		Crop Environment Resource Synthesis
CERGA		Centre d'Etudes et de Rechereches Geodynamiques et Astronomiques
CERL		Corvallis Environmental Research Laboratory (EPA)
CERN		Chinese Ecological Research Network
CERN		European Laboratory for Particle Physics
CERN		European Organization for Nuclear Research
CERP		Cooperative Ecological Research Project (PRC,
		Germany, and UNESCO)
CERSAT		French group for processing ERTS-1 low bit rate data from ocean areas
CES		Committee on Earth Sciences (now CEES)
CETA		Carbon Emissions Trajectory Assessment
CETA		Comprehensive Education and Training Administration
CF		concentration factor
CF		Carbon Fraction
CFAGB		Carbon fraction of above ground biomass
CFC		chlorofluorocarbon
CFC		chlorinated fluorocarbon
CFC-11		CC13F, trichlorofluoromethane, Freon-11
CFC-12		CCl2F2, dichlorodifluoromethane, Freon-12
CFC-113		CCl2FCClF2, 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane
CFEM		combined fates and effects model
CFF		Carbon fraction of fuel
CFM		Chlorofluoromethane
CFR		Code of Federal Regulations
CFRI		Central Fuel Research Institute (India)
CGBAPS		Cape Grim Baseline Air Pollution Station
CGC		Committee on Global Change
CGC		Management and Coordination Advisory Committee
CGCM		coupled atmosphere/ocean general circulation model
CGCP		Canadian Global Change Program
CGED		Committee on Geophysical Environmental Data (NAS)
CGES		Center for Global Environmental Studies
CGMS		Coordination of Geostationary Meteorological Satellites
CGMW		Commission for the Geological Map of the World
CGO		Cape Grim (Tasmania) (baseline station)
CH4		methane
CH4-C		Methane-carbon ratio
CH3CL		methyl chloride
CH3CCl3		methylchloroform (1,1,1-trichloroethane)
CHAMMP		Computer Hardware, Advanced
		Mathematics, and Model Physics (Climate Modeling Program)CHEMRAWN	Chemical Research Applied to World Needs (IUPAC)
CHP		Combined Heat and Power
CHRIS		Chemical Hazard Response Information System
CH.SS		Permanent Interstate Committee for Drought
		Control in the Sahel (CILSS)
CHy		Commission for Hydrology (WMO)
CI		Conservation International (Washington, D.C.) (NGO)
CIA		Central Intelligence Agency
CIAP		Climate Impact Assessment Program
CIAP		Inter-American Committee for the Alliance for Progress
CIDA		Canadian International Development Agency
CIE		Chinese Institute of Electronics
CIEA		Committee on International Environmental Activities
CIESIN		Consortium for International Earth Science
		Information Network (U.S.)
CIG		Commonwealth Industrial Gases (U.K.)
CIHEAM		Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Mediterraneenes
CIL		Coal India Limited
CILSS		Comite Inter-Etats pour la Lutte Contre la
		Secheresse au Sahel (CH.SS) (consists of Chad,
		Gambia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal, Upper Volta, and Cape Verde Islands)
CIMO		Commission for Instruments and Methods of Observation (WMO)
CIMSS		Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies
CINOF		Campaign for Integrated Observations of Solar Flares
CIR		color-infrared (film)
CIRAC		Canadian Institute for Research in Atmospheric Chemistry
CIRES		Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (University
		of Colorado, Boulder)
CIRT		cirrus test
CIS		CDIAC Information System
CIS		Commonwealth of Independent States
CISPR		International Special Committee on Radio Interference
CISTI		Canada Institute for Scientific and Technical Information
CIT		California Institute of Technology
CITE		Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation
CIUS		Conseil International des Unions Scientifiqes (ICSU)
CKE		cumulus kinetic energy
CLAES		cryogenic limb array etalon spectrometer
CLARET		Cloud Lidar and Radar Exploratory Test
CLASS		Cross-chain Loran Atmospheric Sounding System
CLAVR		Clouds from AVHRR
CLI		Climate Change (project)
CLIC		Climate Inventory and Catalog
CLICOM		climate computing
CLIMAP		Climate Long-Range Investigation Mapping and Prediction (project)
CLIMAP		Climate Applications Project (WMO)
CLIVAR		Climate Variability and Predictability (WCRP)
ClNO3		chlorine nitrate
ClO		chlorine monoxide
ClO2		chlorine dioxide
ClONO2		chlorine nitrate
ClNO3		chlorine nitrate
CLP		Contract Laboratory Program (EPA)
CLRI		Central Leather Research Institute (India)
CLS		Collected Localization Satellites (France)
cm		centimeter
cm3		cubic centimeter (milliliter)
CMA		Cement Manufacturers' Association (U.S.)
CMAP		Climate Modeling, Analysis, and Prediction (program)
CMC		Canadian Meteorological Centre
CMD		Coordinator for Multi-lateral Development Program
CMDL		Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics
		Laboratory (Boulder, Colorado) (NOAA and ERL)
CME		Community Modelling Effort (U.K.)
CMIE		Centre for Monitoring the Indian Economy
CMM		Commission for Marine Meteorology (WMO)
CMP		Climate Modelling Programme
CMP		computer modeling package
CMRS		Coal Mines Research Station
CMS		Configuration Management System
CN		condensation nuclei
CNC		condensation nucleus counter
CNES		Centre Nationale d'Etudes Spatiales (French
		Space Agency)
CNET		Centre National d'Etudes des Telecommunications (France)
CNG		compressed natural gas
CNR		Committee on Natural Resources
CNR		Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (Italy)
CNRET		Centre for Natural Resources Energy and Transport (UN)
CNRS		National Scientific Research Center (Centre Nationale de la Recherche
		Scientifique) (France)
CO		carbon monoxide
CO-C		Carbon monoxide carbon trace gas emission
CO2		carbon dioxide
COADS		Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set
COARE		Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA and WCRP)
COBIOTECH	Scientific Committee for Biotechnology (ICSU)
CODATA		Committee on Data for Science and Technology (ICSU)
CODMAC		Committee on Data Management, Archiving, and Computation
COE		U.S. Army Corps of
		Engineers
COGEOMAP	Federal-State Cooperative Geologic Mapping
COHMAP		Cooperative Holocene Mapping Project
Co-I		co-investigator
COLA		Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies
COM		Communication Department
CONA		Committee for OWSE-North America
CoP		Conference of the Parties to the FCCC
COPS		continuously operating per fluorocarbon sniffer
COPUOS		Committee on Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UN)
Corp.		Corporation (spell out in text; abbreviate in references, lists tables, footnotes,
		bibliographies, and indexes)
COS		Carbonyl sulfide
CoSAMC		Commission for Special Applications of Meteorology and Climatology
		(WMO)
COSPAR		Committee on Space Research (ICSU)
COST		Committee on Science and Technology (ASEAN)
COSTED		Committee on Science and Technology in Developing Countries
		(ICSU)
COW		Committee on Water
COWAR		Committee on Water Research (ICSU and UATI)
COWRR		Committee on Water Resources Research
CPA		Centrally Planned Asia
CPC		Climate Prediction Center (formerly  CAC)
CPE		Eastern Europe (also called Centrally Planned Europe)
CPEs		Centrally-planned economies
CPM		critical path method
CPMS		climatological prediction by model statistics
CPO		Core Project Office (IGBP)
CPP		cloud photopolarimeter
CPPC		Core Project Planning Committee (IGBP)
CPRS		cloud-profiling radar system
CPS		certified professional secretary
CPU		central processing unit
CPUE		catch per unit effort
CRC		Climate Research Committee
CRC		cyclic redundancy check
CRD		Carbon released from dead biomass
CRE		Coal Research Establishment of BCC (U.K.)
CRE		Centro Ricerche Energia, Italy (ENEA)
CREN		Chemical Research and Environmental Needs
CREO		Cryosphere Research on Qingzang Plateau
CRESP		Coordinated Research and Environmental Surveillance Programme
		(NEA)
CRF		cloud radiative forcing
CRI		Climate Research Institute (Oklahoma State University)
CRIC		Computerized River Information System (U.S. Fish
		and Wildlife Service)
CRL		Carbon released from living biomass
CRM		certified reference material
CRP		Climate Research Program
CRPE		Centre de Recherches en Physique de l'Environment Terrestre et Planetaria
CRREL		Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (COE)
CRS		cavity-ringdown spectrometer
CRT		cathode-ray tube
CRU		Climatic Research Unit (UEA, Norwich, U.K.)
CRYSYS		Cryospheric System
CS		Computer Services Department
CS		Carbon stored
CSA		Canadian Space Agency
CSA		Chinese Society of Astronautics
CSATA		Centra Studi e Applicazioni in Tecnologie Avanzate (Italy)
CSD		Commission on Sustainable Development
CSEC		Centre for the Study of Environmental Change (University of Lancaster)
CSELI		Centra Studi e Laboratori Telecommunicazioni (Italy)
CSERGE		Centre for Social and Economic Research on the Global Environment
		(UEA and University College, London)
CSES		Center for the Study of Earth from Space (University of Colorado, Boulder)
CSIR		Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (India)
CSIR		Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (South Africa)
CSIRO		Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial
		Research Organization (Australia)
CSIRO/DAR	CSIRO/Division of Atmospheric Research
		(Australia)
CSM		climate system monitoring
CSMP		Climate System Modeling Program
CSO		Central Statistical Organization
CSPP		Collaborative Special Project and Programme
CSR		Centra de Sensores Remotes (Italy)
CSRS		Cooperative State Research Service
CST		CHAMMP Science Team
CSTR		Committee on Solar-Terrestrial Research (BASC)
CSU		Colorado State University (Fort Collins)
CTD		Chemical Technology Division (ORNL)
CTD		conductivity, temperature, and depth sensor
		(instrument)
CTD		continuous-temperature-depth
CTM		Chemistry/Transport Models
CTS		Committee on the Teaching of Science
CTSS		Cray time-sharing system
CU		University of Colorado
CUF		capacity utilization factor
cv		Calorific Value
C.V.		coefficient of variation (math)
CVS		Conference and Visitors' Services
CW		continuous wave
CW		"Conventional Wisdom" scenario, World Bank, 1990
CWA		Clean Water Act (1977)
CWR		continuous-wave radar
CWSF		Chemical Waste Storage Facility
CY		calendar year
CZCS		coastal zone color scanner
CZM		Coastal Zone Management
CZMA		Coastal Zone Management Act (1972)

D

D/H		deuterium/hydrogen (ratio)
1-D		one-dimensional
2-D		two-dimensional
3-D		three-dimensional
4-D		four-dimensional
4DDA		four-dimensional (4D) data assimilation
1-D RCM		one-dimensional radiative-convective model
2-D RCAM	two-dimensional radiative-advective-convective equilibrium model
D		Deuterium (also abbreviated as 2D or 2H)
DAAC		Data Active Archive Center
DAAC		Distributed Active Archive Center
DAC		Data Assembly Centre (WOCE)
DADS		Data Archive and Distribution System
DAEDALUS	Documenting Aerosol Electromagnetics, Defining Aerosol Lifetimes, and
		Understanding Sources (Research Stations)
DAR		Division of Atmospheric Research (CSIRO)
		(Aspendale, Victoria, Australia)
DARA		Deutsche Agentur fur Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (Germany)
DARE		data rescue
DARPA		U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
DAS		data-assimilation system
DAS		data acquisition system
DAS		direct access system
DASA		Deutsche Aerospace Administration
DASET		Department of the Arts, Sports, the
		Environment, Tourism, and Territories (formerly DASETT)
DASETT		Department of the Arts, Sports, the
		Environment, Tourism, and Territories (now DASET)
DAT		Department of Science and Technology
DB		direct-beam (irradiance)
DB		direct broadcast
DBE		Deep Basin Experiment
dbh		diameter at breast height
DBMS		data base management systems (Deutsche Forschungs-und Versuchsanstalt fur
		Luft-und Raumfahrt (Germany)
DBS		Doppler beam swinging
DC		United States Department of Commerce
DC		developing country
DC		Dairy cattle
D.C.		District of Columbia
DCAR		Danish Centre for Atmospheric Research
DCDS		Digital Cartographic Data Standard
DCDSTF		Digital Cartographic Data Standards Task Force (Composed of members of
		the NCDCDS and FICCDC/SWG)
DCF		Discounted Cash Flow
DCP		data collection platform
DCP-OES		direct coupled plasma--optical emission spectroscopy
DCS		data collection system
DCT		dedicated carbon tax
DD		degree day
DDF		descriptive data file
DDL		direct downlink
DDMP		domain-decomposition-message-passing
DDRP		Direct/Delayed Response Project
DDT		dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethane (insecticide)
DE		dynamics explorer
DE		Decay
DE08		designation for an ice core drilled in 1977 at Law Dome, Antarctica
DEBITS		Deposition of Biogeochemically Important Trace Species (IGAC)
DEC		Digital Equipment Corporation
DECNet		Digital Equipment Corporation Network
Dehydrite	magnesium perchlorate anhydrous granular
dE/dt		rate of evaporation (moisture loss from soil)
DEIS		Draft Environmental Impact Statement
DEM		digital elevation model
DEMR		Department of Energy, Mines, and Resources
		(Canada)
DEW		distant early warning
DGCM		Dynamic Global Vegetation Model
DGLR		Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Luft-und Raumfahrt (Germany)
DGVM		Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (GAIM)
DH		chromosome-doubled haploid
DHCN		Daily Historical Climate Network
DHHS		United States Department of Health and Human Services
DHS		Department of Human Services
DI		Directorate
DIA		Denmark's Academy for Engineering
DIAL		Differential Absorption Lidar
DIC		dissolved inorganic carbon
DICE		Dynamic Integrated Climate Economy
DIDAC		digital data acquisition system
DIF		Data Interchange Format
DIS		Data and Information Systems (EOS and IGBP)
Discovery	Research vessel (U.K.)
DISORT		discrete ordinate (model)
DIS-SC		DIS Standing Committee
DISSPLA		Display Integrated Software System and Plotting Language
DIU		Data Information Unit
DIW		Department of Industrial Works
DKD		Deutscher Kalibrierdienst
DLG		digital line graph
DLG-E		digital line graph-enhanced
DLR		Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fur Luft-und Raumfahrt (Germany)
DLS		dynamic limb sounder
DM		Data Management (WMO and WWW)
DM		deep monitoring (wells)DMA		Defense Mapping Agency (U.S.)
DMA		direct memory access (computer term)
DMDS		dimethyl disulfide
DM-MIMD		distributed memory, multiple instruction, multiple data (computer)
DMS		data management system
DMS		dimethyl sulfide or dimethylsulphide
DMSO		dimethyl sulfoxide
DMSP		Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (U.S.)
DNA		deoxyribonucleic acid
DND		Department of National Defense (Canada)
DNES		Department of Non-conventional Energy Sources (India)
DOA		United States Department of Agriculture
DOAI 		Department of Agriculture, Indonesia
DOAS		differential optical absorption spectroscopy
DOC		dissolved organic carbon
DOC		United States Department of Commerce
DOD		United States Department of Defense
DOD		Deutsches Ozeanographisches Datenzentrum (Germany)
DOE		Department of the Environment (Canada)
DOE		United States Department of Energy
DOI		United States Department of Interior
DOJ		United States Department of Justice
DOL		United States Department of Labor
DOLY		Dynamic Global Phytogeography Model (GCTE)
DOM		dissolved organic macromolecules
DOM		dissolved organic matter
DOMSAT		Domestic Communications Satellite
DOMSTAR		communications relay set
DOPLID		Doppler lidar
DORIS		Determination d'Orbite et Radio Positionement Integre par Satellite (France)
DORIS		Doppler Orbit and Radio Positioning Integration by Satellite
DOS		Department of Space
DOS		United States Department of State
DOST		Department of Science and Technology
DOT		United States Department of Transportation
DOY		day of year
DP		direct playback
DPC		display code (CDC)
DPC		Domestic Policy Council
DPR		development planning review
(D)PR		dual precipitation radar
DPS		Digital Photogrammetry System
DQO		Data Quality Objectives
DRAW		Direct Read After Write Animation System
DRS		Data Relay Satellite
DRSS		Data Relay Satellite System
DSB		direct sounding broadcast
DSDP		deep sea drilling project
DSIR		Department of Scientific and Industrial Research
		(now SRC) (U.K.)
DSIR		Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Institute of Nuclear Sciences
		(New Zealand)
DSM		demand-side management
DSN		Deep Space Network
DSP		digital signal processing
DSRT		Deep Sea Reversing Thermometer
DSS		Data Support Section (NCAR)
DST		data system tests
DST		Department of Science and Technology
DTD		digital terrain data
DTH		Technical University of Denmark
DTR		Diurnal temperature range
DU		Dobson units
DUNDEE		Down Under Doppler and Electricity Experiment
DWBM		Office of Defense Waste Byproducts Management
DWS		Doppler wind sensor
DYFAMED		atmospheric dynamics and fluxes in the Mediterranean Sea (France)
		(JGOFS)
DYN		Dynamic Systems Project

E

E/GDP		Ratio of energy consumption to gross domestic product
E/GNP		Ratio of energy consumption to gross national product
EADS		Environmental Assessment Data System
EARSeL		European Association of Remote Sensing Laboratories
EAS		Environmental Analyses Section (ORNL)
EAs		Environmental Assessments
EASIZ		Ecology of the Antarctic Sea Ice Zone
EASOE		European Arctic Stratospheric Ozone Experiment
EAWEP		East Asia and Western Pacific
EAZO		Energy Active Zones of the Ocean
EBBR		Energy-Balance Bowen Ratio
EBCDIC		Extended Binary Coded Data Interchange Code (IBM)
EBM		energy-balance model
EC		eddy correlation
EC		electron capture
EC		elemental carbon
EC		Environment Canada
EC		European Community
EC		European Communities or Commission of the European Communities
EC		executive committee
EC		Executive Council (WMO)
ECA		Economic Commission for Africa (UN)
ECAFE		Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East
ECAMP		Environmental Compliance Assessment and Management Program
		(USAF)
ECC		electrochemical concentration cell
ECD		effective cutoff diameter
ECD		electron capture detector (GC)
ECDIS		Electronic Chart Display and Information Systems
ECE		Economic Commission for Europe (UN)
ECG		Ecosystem Conservation Group (UNEP, FAO, UNESCO, and IUCN)
EC-GC		electron capture-gas chromatograph
ECHAM		European Centre/Hamburg Model (ECMWF/MPI)
ECHIVAL		European International Project on
		Climate and Hydrological Interactions between Vegetation, Atmosphere, and Land
		Surfaces (BAHC and EPOCH)
ECLA		Economic Commission for Latin America
ECLAC		Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (UN)
ECLIPS		Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study
ECMWF		European Centre for Medium-Range
		Weather Forecasts (U.K.)
Ecom.		EOS communications
ECN		Netherlands Energy Research Foundation
ECN		Environmental Change Network
ECOMARGE	ecology of the continental margins (France) (JGOFS)
ECOSOC		Economic and Social Council (UN)
ECOWARM		European Committee for Water Resources Management (IAHS)
ECS		Environmentally Compatible Energy Strategies (project)
ECS		EOSDIS Core System
ECSL		European Centre for Space Law
ECTF		Edinburgh Centre for Tropical Forests
ECU		Environmental Change Unit (Oxford)
ECWA		Economic Commission for Western Asia
ED		Energy Division
EDA		elevation difference accuracy
EDAS		particulate/radon data system
EDC		EROS Data Center
EDD		Exchange of Digital Data
EDI		electronic Data Interchange
EDI		Equivalent-damage index
EDIS		Environmental Data and Information Service
EDOS		EOS Data and Operations System
EDP		electronic data processing
EDS		Environmental Data Service
EDSG		Energy Demand Steering Group
EDTA		ethylenediaminetetraacetate
EDTA		ethylenediaminetetraacetic (acid)
EDX		energy-dispersive X-ray (analysis)
EDXS		energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy
EEC		European Economic Communities
EEC		European Economic Commission
EEFSU		Eastern Europe and Former Soviet Union
EEI		Edison Electric Institute
EEP		east equatorial Pacific
EER		external engineering review
EEZ		Exclusive Economic Zone
EF		Emission Factor
EFCC		Externally Fired Combined Cycle
EFEDTA		European Field Experiment in Decertification Threatened Area
		(ECHIVAL and BAHC)
EFQ		Estimated fuel quantity consumed (Used to determine carbon stored)
e.g.		exempli gratia (for example) use only in parentheses or footnotes,
		followed by a comma)
EGCM		Eddy-resolving General Circulation Model
EGE		Enhanced Greenhouse Effect
EG&G		Edgerton, Germeshauser, and Greer
EGS		European Geophysical Society
EIA		Energy Information Administration (DOE)
EIPO		European IGAC Project Office Steering
		Committee
EIS		environmental impact statement
EISCAT		European Incoherent Scatter Facility
EISMV		Ecole Inter-Etats des Sciences et de Medecine Veterinaire (Dakar)
EJ		exajoule (1018 joules)
E-LIDAR		experimental lidar
ELS		Eastern Lake Survey
ELV		expendable launch vehicle
EM		electromagnetic
EMAP		Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program
EMEP		Cooperative Programme for Monitoring and
		Evaluation of Long-Range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe
EMEP-CCC	EMEP-Chemical Coordination Centre
EMEX		Equatorial Mesoscale Experiment
EMF		Energy Modelling Forum
EML		Environmental Measurements Laboratory (DOE)
EMOC		EOSDIS Mission Operations Center
EMR		electromagnetic radiation
EMSL		Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory (EPA)
EMSL-LV		Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory - Las Vegas (Nevada)
		(EPA)
En		Natural forest biomass used for energy
ENEA		Energia Nucleare e delle Energie Alternative
		(Italy)
ENEA		Italian National Agency for New technology, Energy and the Environment
ENRIC		Environment and Natural Resources Information Center
ENRICH		European Network for Research on Global Change (CEC)
ENSO		El Nino/Southern Oscillation (coupled oceanic-atmospheric change)
ENVISAT		environmental satellite
EOC		Earth Observation Center (NASDA)
EOC		EOS Operations Center (NASA)
EOCAP		Earth Observation Commercialization Application Program
EODC		Earth Observing Data Center (U.K.)
EOF		empirical orthogonal function
EO-ICWG		Earth Observations International Coordination Working Group
EOPM		electro-optic phase modulation
EORCU		European Ozone Research Coordinating Unit
EOS		Earth Observing System (U.S.)
EOS-AERO	EOS Aerosol Mission
EOS-ALT		EOS Altimetry Mission
EOS-AM		EOS Morning Crossing (ascending) Mission or
		Earth Observing System (morning pass)
EOSAT		Earth Observation Satellite (commercial operator for satellite systems in
		the U.S.)
EOS-CHEM	EOS Chemistry Mission
EOSC		Earth Observations Science Committee (of ESA)
EOSDIS		EOS Data and
		Information System
EOSP		Earth Observing Scanning Polarimeter
EOS PM		Earth Observing System (afternoon pass) or EOS Afternoon Crossing (descending) Mission
EOTC		European Organization for Testing and Certification (EC)
EP		Earth Probe
EP		extraction procedure (RCRA and EPA)
EPA		Environmental Protection Agency (U.S.)
EPA		Environmental Protection Authority (Victoria, Australia)
EPC		Environmental Protection Committee (Bahrain)
EPD		European Pollen Database
EPER		Environmental Processes and Effects Research (program)
EPI		environmental productivity index
EPICA		European Programme for Ice Coring in Antarctica (PAGES)
EPO		EOS Project Office
EPOCH		European Programme on Climate and
		Hazards (EEC)
EPOP		European Polar-Orbiting Platform
EPOPE		Etude de Processes dans l'Ocean Pacifique Equatorial
EPRI		Electric Power Research Institute (Palo Alto,
		California)
EPSRC		Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council
EQPAC		Equatorial Pacific (JGOFS)
ER		Office of Energy Research
ER-2		Extended Range U-2 (aircraft)
ERB		Earth Radiation Budget
ERBE		Earth Radiation Budget Experiment
ERBES		Earth Radiation Budget Explorer Satellite
ERBS		Earth Radiation Budget Satellite
ERD		Ecological Research Division (DOE and OHER)
ERDA		U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration (formerly AEC; now DOE)
ERDAS		Earth Resources Data Analysis Systems
ERFEN		Estudio Regional del Fenomeno El Nino
ERFU		Environmental Restoration and Facilities Upgrade Program
ERIM		Environmental Research Institute of Michigan
ERL		Environmental Research Laboratory (Boulder,
		Colorado) (NOAA)
ERNets		Energy Research Networks
ERNI		wet-only rainfall collector
EROC		Ecological Rates of Change (NSF)
EROS		Earth Resources Observation Satellite
EROS		Earth Resources Observation System
EROS		European River Ocean System (EEC)
ERP		Environmental Research Parks
ERS		Economic Research Service
ERS		Earth Resources (or remote sensing) Satellite
ERS		ESA Remote Sensing Satellite
ERS		European Remote-Sensing Satellite
ERS-1		European Remote-Sensing Satellite-1
ERS-2		European Remote-Sensing Satellite-2
ERTS		Earth Resources Technology Satellite (now Landsat)
ERTS-1		Earth Resources Technology Satellite-1
ESA		Ecological Society of America
ESA		Endangered Species Act (1973)
ESA		Entomological Society of America
ESA		Equatorial South America (START)
ESA		European Space Agency
ESA/IRS		European Space Agency/Information Retrieval Service
ESAD		Earth Science and Applications Division (NASA
		HQ)
ESAER		European Space Agency's Earth Resources (Satellite)
ESAM		Institute for Environmental Science and Management
ESCAP		Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UN)
ESD		Environmental Sciences Division (ORNL)
ESDIS		Earth Science Data and Information System
ESF		European Science Foundation
ESF/EPC		ESF/European Palaeoclimate and Man Project
		(holocene climate)
ESMAP		Energy Sector Management Assistance Programme
ESMR		electronically (electrically) scanning microwave radiometer
ESOC		European Space Operations Center
ESRC		Environmental Science Research Center
ESRC		Economic and Social Research Council
ESRI		Environmental Systems Research Institute
ESSA		U.S. Environmental Science Services Agency
		(forerunner of NOAA)
ESSC		Earth System Sciences Committee
ESTAR		electronically scanned thinned array radiometer (ARM)
ESTEC		European Space Research and Technology Centre
ESTEC		European Space Technology Centre (Netherlands)
ET		evapotranpiration
ETA		estimated time of arrival
ETAC		Environmental Technical Applications Center (U.S.
		Air Force)
ETAP		Expanded Technical Assistance Program
ETC		Energy Technology Center
ETC		European Telecommunications Standards Institute (EC)
etc.		and others especially of the same kind; and so forth
ETF		Engineered Test Facility
ETF		Environmental Task Force
ETI		Economic Transition and Integration (project)
ETM		enhanced thematic mapper (Landsat)
ETRP		Education and Training Programme (WMO)
ETSA		electron transport system activity
ETV		electrothermal vaporizer
EU		Agri-residue utilized for energy supply
EU		European Union
EUMELI		eutrophic, mesotrophic, and oligotrophic sites (France) (JGOFS)
EUMETSAT	European Organization for the
		Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites
EUR		Bureau of European Affairs
EURECA		European Retrievable Carrier
EUROSTART	European Planning Committee for START
EUROTRAC	European Experiment on Transport and
		Transformation of Environmentally Relevant Trace Constituents (in the Troposphere
		over Europe)
EUV		extreme ultraviolet
EVA		extra vehicular activity
EXCOMM		Executive Committee
EZE		Asociacion Protestante de Cooperacion para el Desarrollo en Alemania

F

%FCO		Fraction of carbon oxidized
f		Fraction
FAA		Federal Aviation Administration (U.S.)
FAB		Finance and Budget
FAB		Fraction actually burned
FABF		Fraction of agri-residue burned in fields
FACE		free-air carbon dioxide enrichment (GCTE)
FAD		Fraction actually degrades
FAGS		Federation of Astronomical and Geophysical Services (ICSU)
FAI		Fertilizer Association of India
FANGIO		Feedback Analysis for GCM Intercomparison
		and Observations
FAO		Food and Agriculture Organization (UN) (ICSU)
FAP		Food and Agriculture Project
FAPIS		Formation en Amenagement Pastoral Integre au Sahel
FAQ		Frequently Asked Question
FAR		Federal Acquisition Regulations
FARS		Facility for Atmospheric Remove Sensing
FASINEX		Frontal Air-Sea Interaction Experiment
FAST		Fourier amplitude-sensitivity test
FATE		Formation of Aerosol and their Transformation over Europe (EUROTRAC)
FB		Fraction burned annually
FBS		Frontal Boundary Study
FBC		Fluidized Bed Combustor
FC		Fuel Consumption
FCC		Federal Communications Commission
FCCC		Framework Convention on Climate Change
FCCSET		Federal Coordinating Council for Science,
		Engineering, and Technology (now NSTC)
FCDS		Fleet Consolidated Data Set (U.S. Navy)
FCST		Federal Council for Science and Technology
FD		Fraction that is dead
FDA		facility disposal area
FDH		Fixed Dynamical Heating
FDI		field data investor
FDM		finite difference method
FDOC		Fraction of degradable organic carbon
FE		Fossil Energy Program (DOE)
Fe		iron
FEA		Far East
FEDC		Fusion Energy Design Center
FEDMAP		Federal Geologic Mapping Project
FEIS		final environmental impact statement
FeLINE		Iron as a Limiting-Nutrient Experiment (CSIRO)
FEM		finite element method
FEMA		Federal Emergency Management Agency (U.S.)
FEMA		Finite Element Model of Material Transport through Aquifers
FERC		Federal Energy Regulatory Commission
FEWA		Finite Element of Water Flow through Aquifers
FF		free format
FFES		Fossil Free Energy System
FFO		Fraction of oxidized
FFT		fast Fourier transformation
FGCC		Federal Geodetic Control Committee (U.S.
		National Ocean Service)
FGD		Flue Gas Desulphurisation
FGDC		Federal Geographic Data Commission
FGEF		Federal Geographic Exchange Format
FGGE		First GARP
		Global Experiment (WMO)
FGGE SOP	FGGE Special Observing Period
FICCDC		Federal Interagency Coordinating
		Committee on Digital Cartography (USGS)
FICCDC/SWG	FICCDC/Standards Working Group (U.S.)
FID		flame ionization detector (GC)
FIELD		Foundation for International Environmental Law and Development
FIFE		First ISLSCP Field Experiment
FIFRA		Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act
FIN		Fish Information Network (data base)
FIPS		Federal Information Processing Standard
FIRE		First ISCCP Regional Experiment
FIREIFO		First ISCCP Regional Experiment
FIRESCAN	Fire Research Campaign Asia-North
FIT		Field Investigation Team (EPA)
FIZ		Fachinformationszentrum
FL		Fraction that live
FLAIR		Measurement of Micronutrient Absorption and Status
FLINN		Fiducial Laboratories for an International Natural Sciences Network
FLM		federal land manager (e.g., National Park Service)
FLUPAC		flux dans l'ouest du Pacifique equatorial (France) (JGOFS)
FMFR		four-minus-five restoral
FMFT		four-minus-five test
FNOC		Fleet Numerical Oceanographic Center (U.S. Navy)
FNWC		Fleet Numerical Weather Center (U.S. Navy)
FO		furnace oil
FOAM		Fates of Aromatic Model
FOLD		federally owned Landsat data
FOR		Forestry Resources (project)
FORAST		Forest Response to Anthropogenic Stress (model)
FORET		Forest of East Tennessee (model)
FORTE		fast on-orbit recording of transient events
FORTRAN		FORmula TRANslation (a computer language)
FOT		flight operations team
FOT		Fourier Optical Transform
FOV		field-of-view (of vision)
FPD		flame photometric detector
FR		Federal Register (use with numbers in text; use "Fed. Regis." in
		reference lists)
Fr		Quantity of biomass cleared annually from natural forests
Fr		Fraction of liquid waste treated anaerobically (In methane emissions from
		municipal liquid waste)
FRAM 		Fine Resolution Antarctic Model (U.K.)
FRG		Federal Republic of Germany (now Germany)
FRI		Forest Research Institute
FRLAB		Front Range Lidar, Aircraft, and Balloon (experiment)
FRONTAL		frontal process studies (France) (JGOFS)
FRR		fast repetition rate
FRRPA		Forest and Rangeland Renewable Planning Act (1974)
FS		Forest Service (USDA)
FSI		Forest Survey of India
FSL		Forecast Systems Laboratory (ERL and NOAA)
FSSP		forward scattering spectrometer probe
FST		field support terminal
FSU		Florida State University (Tallahasee)
FT		Free troposphere
FTIR		Fourier transform infrared
FTIR		Fourier transform infrared radiometer (spectroscopy)
FTP		file transfer protocol
FTP/A		field task proposal/agreement
FTS		Fournier transform spectrometer
FTS		full turbulence simulation
FTS		file transfer system
FTU		Formazin turbidity unit
FUA		Fuel Use Act
FW		filter wheel
FWCA		Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act (1958)
FWM		food web model
FWP		Field Work Proposal
FWPCA		Federal Water Pollution Control Act (1972)
FWS		United States Fish and Wildlife Service
FWWTA		Fraction of waste water treated anaerobically
FY		fiscal year

G

G-1		Gulfstream-1 (airplane)
G-7		Group of Seven (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, United Kingdom,
		United States
g		gram
GA		geographic analysis
GAC		global area coverage
GAGE		Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment
GAIM		Global Analysis, Interpretation, and Modelling
		(IGBP)
GH		Gas Heater
GALE		Genesis of Atlantic Lows Experiment
GAME		GEWEX-related Asian Monsoon Experiment
GAMETAG		Global Atmospheric Measurements Experiment of Tropospheric
		Aerosols and Gases
GARP		Global Atmospheric Research Program (WMO, ICSU, and NOAA)
GATE		GARP Atlantic Tropical Experiment
GATE		Global Atmosphere Tropical Experiment
GATT		General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
GAW		Global Atmosphere Watch (WMO)
GBF/DIME	Geographic Base Files/Dual Independent Map Encoding (U.S. Census Bureau)
Gbps		gigabits per second
GBSRN		Global Baseline Surface Radiation Network
GC		gas chromatography (chromatograph)
GCC		global change category
GCCD		Global Climate Change Digest (CEI)
GCDB		Geographic Coordinates Data Base
GCDIS		Global Change Data and Information System
GCEP		Global Change Education Program
GCHC		Gulf Coast Hydroscience Center (USGS)
GCIP		GEWEX
		Continental-Scale International Project
GCM		General (global) Circulation Model
GCM		Global Climate Model
GC/MS		gas chromatography/mass spectrometry
GCO		Generation Certification Official (waste generation)
GCOS		Global Climate Observing System (WMO, IOC, UNEP, and ICSU)
GCP		Ground Control Point
GCPI		Cape Grim Photochemical Intensive (CSIRO)
GCRIO		Global Change Research Information Office
GCRP		Global Change Research Program
GCSS		GEWEX Cloud System Study
GCSS		Global Cloud Systems Study
GCTE		Global Change in Terrestrial Ecosystems
		(program) (IGBP)
GCTE-SSC	GCTE Scientific Steering Committee
GCTM		Global Chemical Transport Model
GCV		gross calorific value
GDAAC		Goddard Distributed Active Archive Center
GDAS		Grimco data acquisition system
GDC 		Global Data Centre
GDP		gross domestic product
GDPS		Global Data-Processing System (WMO and WWW)
GDSIDB		Global Digital Sea-Ice Data Bank (WMO/CMM)
GDR		Geophysical Data Record
GDR		German Democratic Republic (now Germany)
GE		General Electric
GEBA		Global Energy Balance Archive
GEC		global environment change
GEDEX		Greenhouse Effect Detection Experiment
GEF		Global Environment Facility (WB, UNDP, and UNEP)
GEF		Global Environmental Fund
GEIA		Global Emissions Inventory Activity (IGAC)
GEISA		Gestion et d'Etude des Information Spectroscopiques Atmospheriques
GEM		Geospace Environment Modeling
GEM-HEX		Geochemical, Microbiological, and Hydrological Experiment
GEMS		Global Environmental Monitoring System (UNEP)
GENESIS		Global Environmental and Ecological Simulation of Interactive Systems
GENIE		Global Environmental Network for Information Exchange
GENLEAF		generic models of leaf response
GEO		Geostationary Earth Observation
GEOM		geographically detailed model
GEOS		Geodynamics Experimental Ocean Satellite
Geos-3		Geodetic Satellite Mission (NASA)
Geosat		Geologic Satellite (program) (USN)
Geosat		Geodesy satellite (USN)
GEOSECS		Geochemical Ocean Sections Study
GER		Global Environmental Research (U.K.)
GERG		Global Environment Research Group
GESAMP		Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Pollution
GEWEX		Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment
		(WCRP)
GF3		General Format No. 3
GFDL		Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (NOAA)
GFDL		Goddard Fluid Dynamics Laboratory
GFLOPS		one gigaflop equals 1 billion (109) floating point operations
		per second (measure of computer processing capability)
GFO		Geosat follow-on
GGI		GPS geoscience instrument
GGI		greenhouse-gas indices
GGS		global geospace science
GHCN		Global Historical Climatology Network
GHG		greenhouse gas(es)
GHz		gigahertz
GIF		Graphical Interchange Format
GIM		Global Integration and Modeling (IGAC)
GIMMS		Global Inventory Modeling and Monitoring Study
GIS		geographic information system (a system for
		management, manipulation, analysis, and display of spatial data)
GISMO		graphic-information-system modeling
GISP		Greenland Ice Sheet Project (NSF and PAGES)
GISP2		Greenland Ice Sheet Project
GISP II		Second Greenland Ice Sheet Project (U.S.)
GISS		Goddard Institute for Space Studies (NASA)
GIT		gastrointestinal tract
GIT		Georgia Institute of Technology (Atlanta)
GJ		giga (109) joule
GL		Geophysics Laboratory
GLAS		Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (formerly
		GLRS-A)
GLAS		Goddard Laboratory of Atmospheric Sciences
GLBC		Great Lakes Basin Commission
GLI		global imager
GLIS		Global Land Information System
GLL		Galileo
GLOBE		Global Land One kilometer Base Elevation (DIS)
GLOBE		Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment
GLOBEC		Global Ocean Ecosystems Dynamics (SCOR)
GLOBEC		Global Marine Ecosystem Dynamics (program)
GLOCARB		Global Tropospheric Carbon Dioxide Network (IGAC)
GLOCHANT	Global Change Research in the Antarctic (SCAR)
GLOCHEM		Global Atmospheric Chemical Survey (IGAC)
GloED		Global Emissions Database
GLONET		Global Tropospheric Ozone Network (IGAC)
GLOSS		Global Sea-Level Observing System (IOC)
GLRC		Great Lakes Research Center (LSC and NOAA)
GLRD		Great Lakes Research Division
GLRS		Geoscience Laser Ranging System
GLRS-A		Geoscience Laser Ranging System-Altimeter
		(now GLAS)
GLRS-R		Geoscience Laser Ranging System-Ranger
GMCC		Geophysical Monitoring for Climate Change (now CMDL)
GMDSS		Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (IMO)
GMP		genetically modified plants
GMS		Geostationary Meteorological Satellite (Japan)
GMSC		Geologic Map Standards Committee (USGS)
GMT		Greenwich Mean Time
GNIS		Geographic Names Information System (USGS)
GNP		Gross National Product
GNO		Gross Product Originating
GO3OS		Global Ozone Observing System (WMO)
GOALS		Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System (program)
GOED		Global Oceans Ecosystems Dynamics
GOES		Geostationary Operational Environmental
		Satellite
GOES		Geosynchronous Operational Environmental Satellite
GOES		Global Oceans Ecosystems Dynamics
GOES		Global Omnibus Environmental Survey (HDGEC)
GOEZS		Global Ocean Euphotic Zone Study (IGBP, SCOR, and WCRP)
GOF		Global Ocean Flux
GOFS		Global Ocean Flux Study
GOI		government of India
GOIN		Global Observation Information Network
GOME		Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment
GOMI		Global Ozone Monitoring Instrument
GOMOS		Global Ozone Monitoring by Occultation of Stars
GOMR		global ozone monitoring radiometer
GONG		Global Oscillation Network Group
GOOS		Global Ocean Observing System (IOC, UNESCO, WMO, and ICSU)
GOOS		Global Ozone Observing System (IOC, UNESCO, WMO, and ICSU)
GOP		Geographical Observatories Programme
GOS		Global Observing System (WMO and WWW)
GOS	&#09:Geomagnetic Observing System
GPC		Global Processing Center
GPCC		Global Precipitation Climatology Center (data base)
GPCP		Global Precipitation Climatology Project
GPI		GOES Precipitation Index
GPO		Government Printing Office (U.S.)
GPS		Global Positioning System
GPSDR		Global Positioning System Demonstration Receiver
GR		growth rate
GRADO		CNES Gravity Satellite (France)
GRASS		Geographic Resources Analysis Support System (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers)
GRDC		Global Runoff Data Centre
GRECA		Group of Experts on Accident Consequences (NEA and OECD)
GREENS		Global Redevelopment with Energy Environment Sustainability
GREENTIE	Greenhouse Gas Technology Information Exchange
GRGS		Groupe de Recherches de Geodesic Spatiale (France)
GRID		Global Resource Information Database (UNEP)
GRIP		Greenland Icecore Project (PAGES) (Europe)
GRIMCO		CGBAPS computing system
GRM		NASA Gravity Satellite (U.S.)
GRO		Gamma Ray Observatory (NASA)
GSA		General Services Administration
GSA		Geological Society of America
GS&M		Modeling (task team)
GSC		Geological Survey of Canada (DEMR)
GSF		Gesellschaft fur Strahlen und Umweltforschung mbH Munchen (Germany)
GSFC		Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA)
GSL		Gulf Stream Locale
GSMNP		Great Smoky Mountains National Park
GSN		Global Seismic Network
GSP		Greenland Sea Project
GSPDC		Geostationary Satellite Precipitation Data Centre
GSRN		Global Surface Radiation Network
Gt		gigaton (1,000 million tons)
GtC		gigatons (or gigatonnes) of carbon
GTCC		Gas Turbine Combined Cycle
GTCE		Global Tropospheric Chemistry Experiment
GTE		Global Tropospheric Experiment
GTOS		Global Terrestrial Observing System
GTS		Global Telecommunications System (WMO and
		WWW)
GUI		graphical user interface
GVap		GEWEX Water Vapor Project ("GvaP"is
		preferred)
GVaP		GEWEX Water Vapor Project (preferred over
		"GVap")
GW		Gigawatt
GWE		Global Weather Experiment
GWh		giga watt hour
GWP		greenhouse (global) warming potential

H

H-1211		Halon 1211; CBrClF2
H-1301		Halon 1301; CBrF3
H2		hydrogen
H2O		water
H2O2		hydrogen peroxide
ha		hectare
HAAP		high-altitude aerial photograph
HAE		height above ellipsoid
HAGE		human activity and global environment
HALOE		Halogen Occultation Experiment
HALSS		high-altitude lidar sensing station
HAMOCC		Hamburg Ocean Carbon Cycle Model
HAO		High Altitude Observatory (NCAR)
HAP		hazardous air pollutant
HAPEX		Hydrological-Atmospheric Pilot Experiment
		(GEWEX)
HAPEX-MOBILHY	HAPEX-MOdelisation du BILan
		Hydrique
HARM		Hazard Assessment Rating Methodology
HASL		Health and Safety Laboratory
HASP		High Altitude Sampling Program
HBJ		Hazira-Bijapur-Jagdishpur (India)
HBL		Hudson Bay Lowland
HBr		hydrogen bromide
HBW		half band-width
HCBP		hexachlorobiphenol
HCCD		Historical Canadian Climate Database
HCFC		hydrochlorofluorocarbon
HCFC-141b	hydrochlorofluorocarbon-141b (CH3CCl2F)
HCFC-142b	hydrochloroflourocarbon-142b (CH3CClF2)
HCFC-22		hydrochloroflourocarbon-22 (CHClF2,
		chlorodifluoromethane)
HCHO		formaldehyde (also written as CH2O)
HCl		hydrogen chloride
HCMM		Heat-Capacity Mapping Mission
HCMM/AEM-1	HCMM/Applications Explorer Mission-1
HCMR		heat-capacity mapping radiometer
HCN		Historical Climatology Network
HCN		hydrogen cyanide
HCND		Historical Climatology Network-Daily
HD		hierarchical diagnosis
HDF		hierarchical data format
HDGCB		Human Dimensions of Global Change (programme) (UNU, ISSC, and IFIAS)
HDGEC		Human Dimensions of Global Environmental
		Change (programme) (ISSC)
HDP		Human Dimensions Program (SEDAC)
HDP		Human Dimensions of Global Environmental
		Change Program (ISSC)
HDRL		High-Dose Reference Laboratory
HDTV		High-Definition Television
HEC		Hydro-Electric Commission (Tasmania)
HECP		Herbaceous Energy Crops Program
HEIFE		Heihe River Field Experiment
HELCOM		Helsinki Commission
HEM		Harmonizations of Environmental Measurement (program)
HESS		High Latitude Ecosystems as Sources and Sinks of Trace Gases (IGAC)
HEW		Health, Education, and Welfare
HF		hydrogen fluoride
HFC		hydrofluorocarbon
HGCC		Hot Gas Clean Up
HHMS		Hydrostatic Head Monitoring Station
HHS		Department of Health and Human Services
HHV		Higher Heating Value (thermal efficiency basis)
HI		human interactions
HIC		Habitat International Coalition
HILDA		high-latitude diffusive-advective model
HIMSS		high-resolution microwave spectrometer
		sounder (now MIMR)
HIRDLS		high-resolution dynamics limb sounder
HIRIS		high-resolution imaging spectrometer
HIRS		high-resolution infrared radiation sounder
HIS		high-resolution interferometer sounder
HIS		high-spectral resolution interferometer sounder
HITRAN 		High Resolution Transmission Molecular Absorption Database
HLQ		holocellulose/lignocellulose quotient
HLW		high-level waste
HMCRI		Hazardous Materials Control Research Institute
HMMR		high-resolution multifrequency microwave radiometer
HMSU		high-resolution microwave sounding unit
HMTA		Hazardous Materials Transportation Act
HMW		high molecular weight
HNO3		nitric acid
HNRC		HOMS National Reference Centre
HOC		hydrophobic organic compounds
HOCl		hypochlorous acid
HOMS		Hydrological Operational Multipurpose
		Subprogramme (OHP and WMO)
HOT		Hawaii ocean time (series)
HOx		odd hydrogen (OH and H2O2)
HP		health physicist
HP		health physics
HP		Hewlett-Packard (gas chromatograph manufacturer)
HP		High Pressure
HPCC		High Performance Computing and Communications
HPCRC		High Performance Computing Research Center (ORNL)
HPD		Hydrometeorological Processes Division
HPLC		high-precision liquid chromatography
HPLC		high-pressure liquid chromatograph/chromatography
HPS		Health Physics Society (Bethesda, Maryland)
HQ		headquarters
HRDI		high-resolution Doppler imager
HRE		Homogeneous Reactor Experiment (impoundment)
HRIRS		high-resolution infrared radiation sounder
HROI		high-resolution optical instrument
HRPT		high-resolution picture transmission (AVHRR)
HRS		Hazard Ranking System (EPA)
HRSG		Heat Recovery Steam Generator
HRV		high resolution video (SPOT)
HRV		high resolution visible
HSA		Historic Sites Act (1935)
HSL		Hazardous Substance List (EPA)
HSRL		High Spectral Resolution Lidar
HSRP		High Speed Research Program
HST		Hawaii standard time
HST		Hubble Space Telescope
HSWA		Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (1984)
html		hypertext markup language
http		hypertext transport protocol
HTW		High Temperature Winkler gasifier
HUD		Department of Housing and Urban Development (U.S.)
HUMICAP		Humidity sensor on drifters (FASINEX)
HVI		high-volume impactor
HVS		high-volume sampler
HWRP		Hydrology and Water Resources Programme (WMO)
HYNET		Intercomparison of Operational Hydrological Network Design
		Techniques
Hz		hertz (cycles per second)

I

3I		improved initialization inversion
IAA		International Academy of Astronautics
IABO		International Association of Biological Oceanography (ICSU)
IABP		International Arctic Buoy Programme
IAC		International Activities Committee
IACG		Interagency Committee on Geomatics (DEMR)
IACGEC		Inter-Agency Committee on Global Environmental Change
IAEA		International Atomic Energy Agency (UN)
IAEG		International Association for Engineering Geology
IAF		International Astronautical Federation
IAG		International Association of Geodesy (IUGG)
IAGA		International Association of  Geomagnetism and Agronomy (IUGG)
IAGC		International Association of Geochemistry and Cosmochemistry
IAH		International Association of Hydrogeologists (IUGS)
IAHR		International Association for Hydraulic Research
IAHS		International Association of Hydrological
		Sciences (IUGG)
IAI		Inter-American Institute for Global Change Research (START)
IAL		International Association of Theoretical Applied Limnologists
IAMAP		International Association of Meteorology and
		Atmospheric Physics (IUGG)
IAMAP-IAHS	IAMAP-International Association of
		Hydrological Sciences (IUGG)
IAMAS		International Association of Meteorology and
		Atmospheric Sciences (IUGG and ICSU)
IAOPA		International Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association
IAP		Institute of Atmospheric Physics
IAPSO		International Association for Physical Sciences of the Ocean (IUGG and ICSU)
IAR		Institute for Atmospheric Radioactivity (Feiberg, Germany)
IAS		Image Analysis System
IASC		International Arctic Sciences Committee
IASI		infrared atmospheric sounding instrument
IASI		improved atmospheric sounding interferometer
IASI		infrared atmospheric sounding interferometer
IASPEI		International Association of Seismology and Physics of the Earth's
		Interior (IUGG)
IASTED		International Association of Science and
		Technology for Development
IATA		International Air Transport Association
IATUL		International Association of Technological University Libraries
IAU		International Astronomical Union
IAVCEI		International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's
		Interior (IUGG)
IAWPRC		International Association on Water Pollution Research and Control
IBM		International Business Machines (Corp.)
IBM PC		International Business Machines Personal Computer
IBP		International Biological Programme (ICSU)
IBP		International Biophysical Program
IBRD		International Bank for Reconstruction and Development
IBSRAM		International Board for Soil Research and Management
IBSS		Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas (Russian Federation;
		formerly U.S.S.R.)
IBWC		International Boundary and Water Commission (Independent; U.S. and Mexico)
IC		industrialized country
IC		interaction coefficient
IC		Intergovernmental Council
IC		ion chromatography
ICA		International Communication Agency
ICACGP		International Commission on Atmospheric
		Chemistry and Global Pollution (IAMAS)
ICALPE		International Centre for Alpine Environments (Chambery, France)
ICAO		International Civil Aviation Organization
ICAR		Indian Council of Agricultural Research
ICAR		International Center for Action Research
ICARDA		International Center for Agricultural Research in Dry Areas
ICARUS		Interagency Climate-Aerosol Radiative Uncertainties and Sensitivities
		(Program)
ICAS		International Council of the Aeronautical Sciences
ICASVR		International Committee on Atmosphere-Soil-Vegetation Relations
		(IAHS)
ICC		Instrument Control Center
ICCE		International Commission on Continental Erosion (IAHS)
ICDB		Ice Core Data Bank
ICE		International Cirrus Experiment
ICE		International Cometary Explorer
ICEAR		International Centre for Equatorial Atmospheric Research (Indonesia)
ICES		International Council for the Exploration of the Seas
ICF		Instrument Control Facility
ICGW		International Commission on Ground Water (IAHS)
ICIC		Intercalibrations-Intercomparisons (IGAC)
ICICI		Industrial Credit and Investment Corporation of India
ICID		International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage
ICIMOD		International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development for the
		Hindu-Kush Himalayan Region (Katmandu, Nepal)
ICIP		International Conference on Image Processing
ICL		integrated cloud liquid
ICL		International-Union Commission on the Lithosphere (ICSU)
ICLD		International Commission on Large Dams
ICN		ice condensation nuclei
ICOLD		International Commission on Large Dams
ICP		inductively coupled plasma emission (spectroscopy)
ICP/MS		inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry
ICP-OES		inductively coupled plasma--optical emission spectroscopy
ICPP		Idaho Chemical Processing Plant
ICRAF		International Council for Research in Agroforestry
ICRCCM		Intercomparison of Radiation Codes in Climate Models (program)
ICRM		International Committee on Radionuclide Meteorology
ICRP		International Commission on Radiological Protection
ICRSDT		International Committee on Remote Sensing and Data Transmission
		(IAHS)
ICRU		International Commission on Radiological Units
ICSC		International Civil Service Commission
ICSD		International Continental Scientific Drilling (program)
ICSI		International Commission on Snow and Ice (IAHS)
ICSTI		International Council for Scientific and Technical Information
ICSU		International Council of Scientific Unions
ICSU-ACE	ICSU Advisory Committee on the Environment
ICSW		International Commission on Surface Water (IAHS)
ICTP		International Centre for Theoretical Physics
ICWG		International Coordination Working Group
ICWQ		International Commission on Water Quality (IAHS)
ICWRS		International Commission on Water Resources Systems (IAHS)
IDA		International Development Agency
IDASS		Integrated Data Assimilation and Sounding System
IDB		Inter-American Development Bank
IDCCC		Interior Department Cartographic Coordinating Committee (DOI)
IDCS		Image Dissector Camera System
IDDSAC		Interim Data Documentation Standard for ARC/INFO Averages
IDEAL		International Decade for the East African Lakes (project) (PAGES)
IDNDR		International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction
IDP		Instrument Development Program
IDRI		Thailand Development Research Institute
IDS		interdisciplinary science
IDSS		Integrated Data Sounding System
IDRI		Thailand Development Research Institute
IEA		Institute of Energy Analysis
IEA		International Energy Agency
IEA/ORAU	Institute of Energy Analysis/Oak Ridge Associated Universities
IEC		Implementation and Effectiveness of International Environmental
		Commitments
IEE		Institution of Electrical Engineers
IEEE		Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.
IEEE		Institute for Electronics and Electrical Engineering
IELV		intermediate expendable launch vehicle
IEM		Institute of Experimental Meteorology
IEOS		International Earth Observing System
IERS		International Earth Reference System
IERS		International Ellipsoid Reference System
IEW		International Energy Workshop
IFAD		International Fund for Agricultural Development (UN)
IFDC		International Fertilizer Development Center
IFE		Institute for Energy Technology (Norway)
IFIAS		International Federation of Institutes for
		Advanced Study
IFIM		Instream Flow Incremental Methodology (U.S. Fish
		and Wildlife Service)
IFMH		Institut fur Meereskunde, Hamburg, Germany
IFMK		Institut fur Meereskunde, Kiel, Germany
IFN		Ice-freezing nuclei
IFO		intensive field observation
IFOV		instantaneous field of view
IFRB		International Frequency Registration Board
IFREMER		Institut Francais de Recherche pour l'Exploration de la Mer
IFRTP		Institut Francais pour la Researche et la Technologie Polaire (French
		Institute for Polar Research Technology)
IFS		Integrated Forest Study on the Effects of Atmospheric Deposition
IFS		International Foundation for Science
IFU		Fraunhofer Institute for Atmospheric Environmental Research (Germany)
IFYGL		International Field Year for the Great Lakes (IHD)
IG		Institute of Geography
IGAC		International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme
IGAC		International Global Atmospheric Chemistry
		(Program) (IGBP and ICACGP)
IGAC-SSC	IGAC Scientific Steering Committee
IGAP		International Global Aerosol Program
IGBP		International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme
		(ICSU)
IGBP-DIS	IGBP Data and
		Information System
IGC		International Geophysical Cooperation
IGCC		Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle
IGCP		International Geological Correlation Programme (IUGS and UNESCO)
IGEA		International Group of Funding Agencies for Global Change Research
IGFA		Inter-Governmental Funding Agencies
IGFA		International Group of Funding Agencies (for Global Change Research)
IGLD		International Great Lakes Datum
IGN		Institut Geographique National
IGO		Intergovernmental Organization
IGOSS		Integrated Global Ocean Services System (WMO/IOC)
IGOSS		Integrated Global Ocean Station System (UNESCO)
IGPO		International GEWEX Project Office
IGRSS		International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Society
IGS		International Glaciological Society
IGT		Institute of Gas Technology (Chicago)
IGU		International Geographical Union (ICSU)
IGY		International Geophysical Year (1 July 1957 - 31 December 1958)
IHB		International Hydrographic Bureau
IHD		International Hydrological Decade (UNESCO)
IHO		International Hydrographic Organization
IHP		International Hydrological Program (UNESCO)
IHS		International Heliospheric Study
IHSS		International Humic Substances Society
II		interdisciplinary investigator
IIASA		International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (Vienna)
IIG		Indian Institute of Geomagnetism
IIID		International Institute of Information Design
IIOE		International Indian Ocean Expedition
IISL		International Institute of Space Law
IITM		Indian Institute for Tropical Meteorology
IJC		International Joint Commission (Independent; Canada and U.S.)
ILAS		Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer
ILO		International Labor Organization
ILWAS		Integrated Lake-Watershed Acidification Study (EPRI)
IMA		Information Management and Archives (Office)
IM-Al		inorganic monomeric aluminum
IMAGE		Integrated Model to Assess the Greenhouse Effect
IMAGES		International Marine Global Change Study (PAGES and SCOR)
IMB		Investigator of Micro-Biosphere
IMC		ice mass content
IMCO		Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization
IMD		India Meteorological Department
IMF		ice mass flux
IMF		International Monetary Fund
IMG		Interferometric Monitor for Greenhouse Gases
IMO		International Maritime Organization
IMO		International Meteorological Organization (formerly WMO)
IMOP		Instruments and Methods of Observation Programme (WMO)
IMP		ice mass path
IMS		Information Management Services
IMS		Information Management System
IMS		International Mountain Society
IMU		International Mathematical Union
IN		ice nuclei
in.		inch
Inc.		Incorporated
INC		Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee (for a Framework Convention on
		Climate Change)
INC		International Negotiating Convention
INCD		International Convention to Combat Decertification
IND		Industrial Metabolism Project
INDIGO		French programme, Indien Gaz Ocean
INEL		Idaho National Engineering Laboratory
INFOCLIMA	World Climate Data Information and Referral System
INFOTERRA	International Referral System for Sources of Environmental Information (UNEP)
INPA		Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazona (Brazil)
INPE		Brazilian Institute for Space Research (Brazil)
INPE		Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espacialis Brazilian (Brazil)
INQUA		International Union for Quaternary Research
INRA		Institut National de Recherche Agronomiques (France)
INS		inertial navigation system
INS		Institute Scholars
INSA		Institut National des Sciences Appliques (France)
INSAT		Indian Satellite
INSTARR		Institute for Arctic and Alpine Research (University of Colorado, Boulder)
INSULA		International Scientific Council for Island Development (NGO)
INT		p-iodonitrotetrazolium
INTECOL		International Association of Ecology (ICSU
		and IUBS)
INZN		Institut Zairois pour la Conservation de la Nature
I/O		input/output
IO		input/output
IOB		Inter-Organization Board for Information Systems and Related Activities
IOC		Intergovernmental Oceanographic Council (UNESCO)
IOC		Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (UNESCO)
IOC		International Ozone Commission
IOCARIBE	IOC Sub-Commission for the Carribbean and Adjacent Regions
IODE		International Oceanographic Data/Information Exchange (IOC)
IOP		intensive observing period
IOPG		Indian Ocean Planning Group (JGOFS)
IOS		Institute of Ocean Sciences (Canada)
IP		independent pixel
IP		Internet Protocol
IPB		Bogor Agriculture Institute (Indonesia)
IPCC		Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (WMO and UNEP)
IPCC-EIS	IPCC-Energy and Industry Subgroup
IPCC/RSWG/EIS	IPCC/Response Strategies Working
		Group/Energy and Industry Subgroup
IPEI		Ionospheric Plasma and Electrodynamics Instrument
IPMS		International Polar Motion Service
IPO		WOCE International Planning Office
IPOC		International Partner Operations Center
IPR		Intellectual Property Right
IPS		Inter Press Service
IPV		isentropic potential vorticity
IQSY		International Quiet Sun Years
ir		infrared (preferred over "IR")
IR		Infrared ("ir" is preferred)
IRAP		Interdisciplinary Panel on Climate Change
IRC		International Radiation Commission
IRD		Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (Brazil)
IRF		instantaneous radiative transfer
IRGA		infrared gas analyzer
IRI		International Reference Ionosphere
IRIS		Incorporated Research Institution for Seismology
IRIS		infrared interferometer spectrometer
IRIS		integrated radar imaging system
IRP		Installation Restoration Program
IRRI		International Rice Research Institute
IRSS		Indian Remote Sensing Satellite
IRSSP		Interactive Remote Sensing Software Package
IRTM		infrared thermal mapper
IRTS		infrared temperature sounder
IS92 		IPCC Scenarios, 1992
IS		Image Subtraction
ISA		Israel Space Agency
ISA		Italian Space Agency
ISAMS		improved stratospheric and mesospheric sounder
ISAR		Intelligent Synthetic Aperture Radar
ISAS		Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (Japan)
ISC		International Seismological Centre
ISCCP		International Satellite Cloud Climatology
		Program (WCRP)
ISEATRA		International Symposium on Ecological Aspects of Tree-Ring Analysis
ISEB 10		Tenth International Symposium on Environmental Biogeochemistry
ISEE		International Sun-Earth Explorer
ISEM		International Society for Ecological Modelling
ISFA		International Scientific Film Association
ISI		International Statistical Institute
ISLSCP		International Satellite Land-Surface
		Climatology Project (GEWEX and WCRP)
ISO		International Standards Organization
ISOS		International Southern Ocean Studies
ISP		International Society for Photogrammetry
ISPRS		International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing
ISPs		Integrated Steel Plants
ISRIC		International Soil Reference and Information Centre
ISRO		Indian Space Research Organization
ISS		integrated sounding system
ISSC		International Social Science Council
ISSP		ICSU Solar System Panel
ISSS		International Society of Soil Science
ISSMFE		International Society of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering
IST		Instrument Support Terminal
ISTAP		International Space Technology Assessment Program
ISTP		International Solar Terrestrial Physics
ISU		International Space University
ISWS		Illinois State Water Survey
ISY		International Space Year (1992)
ITASE		International Trans-Antarctic Scientific Expedition (PAGES)
ITB		Bandung Institute of Technology (Indonesia)
ITB		Intergovernmental TOGA Board
ITC		International Institute for Aerospace Survey and Earth Sciences
ITCZ		Intertropical Convergence Zone
ITE		Institute of Terrestrial Ecology (NERC)
ITEM		International Technology Environmental (data base) Management (system)
ITEX		International Tundra Experiment (USMAB
		Directorate on High Latitude Ecosystems)
ITIR		infrared thermal imaging radiometer (now ASTER)
ITIR		intermediate and thermal infrared radiometer
ITOS		Improved TIROS Operational System
ITOY		International Tropospheric Ozone Year
ITPO		International TOGA Planning Office
ITPP		International TOVS Processing Package
ITPR		infrared temperature profile radiometer
ITRA		intercomparison of transmittance and radiance algorithms
ITRC		Industrial Toxicology Research Centre
ITRDB		International Tree-Ring Data Bank
ITSC		International TOVS Study Conference
ITU		integrated terrain unit
ITU		International Telecommunication Union
IUAES		International Union of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences
IUB		International Union of Biochemistry (ICSU)
IUBMB		International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
IUBS		International Union of Biological Sciences (ICSU)
IUCAF		Inter-Union Commission on Frequency Allocation for Radio Astronomy
		and Space Science
IUCC		Information Unit on Climate Change
IUCN		International Union for the Conservation of
		Nature and Natural Resources (now World Conservation Union) (Switzerland)
IUCr		International Union of Crystallography
IUCRM		Inter-Union Commission on Radio Meteorology
IUCS		Inter-Union Commission on Spectroscopy
IUE		international ultraviolet explorer
IUFRO		International Union of Forestry Research Organizations (Secretariat,
		Schonbruan, Vienna)
IUGG		International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics
		(ICSU)
IUGS		International Union of Geological Sciences (ICSU)
IUHPS		International Union of the History and Philosophy of Science
IUNS		International Union of Nutritional Sciences
IUPAB		International Union for Pure and Applied Biophysics (ICSU)
IUPAC		International Union of Pure and Applied
		Chemistry (ICSU)
IUPAP		International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (ICSU)
IUPHAR		International Union of Pharmacology
IUPS		International Union of Physiological Sciences
IUPsyS		International Union of Psychological Science
IUR		International Union of Radioecologists
IUTAM		International Union of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics (ICSU)
IVA		intra vehicular activities Instituto Venezuelan de Investigaciones Cientificas
IVL		Swedish Environmental Research Institute
IV&V		independent verification and validation
IWC		Ice water content
IWG		Investigators Working Group
IWGDMGC		Interagency Working Group on Data Management for Global Change
		(U.S.)
IWP		Ice water path
IWRA		International Water Resources Association
IWSA		International Water Supply Association
IZMIRAN		Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Radio Research, and the Ionosphere
		(Academy of Sciences) (Russian Federation; formerly U.S.S.R.)

J

JASIN		Joint Sea-Air Interaction Experiment
JASON		Scientific panel (MITRE Corporation
JAWS		Joint Airport Weather Studies (project)
JECOR		U.S.-Saudi Arabian
		Joint Commission of Economic Cooperation
JEDA		Joint Environmental Data Center
JEE 		Japan Environment Agency
JEM		Japanese Experiment Module
JEOS		Japanese Earth Observing System
JEOS		Japanese Earth Observing Satellite
JERS-1		Japanese Earth Remote-sensing Satellite-1
JERS		Japanese Earth Resources Satellite (JPOP)
JGOFS		Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (program) (IGBP and SCOR)
JGOFS GS	JGOFS Global Synthesis
JGOFS PM	JGOFS Photosynthetic Measurements (task
		team)
JGOFS-SSC	JGOFS Scientific Steering Committee
JI		Joint Implementation
JICST		Japan Information Center of Science and Technology
JIN		Joint Implementation Network
JIU		joint inspection unit
JJA		June-July-August
JMA		Japan Meteorological Agency
JOC		Joint Organizing Committee
JOI		Joint Oceanographic Institutions (Inc.)
JPL		Jet Propulsion Laboratory (California Institute of Technology) (NASA)
JPOP		Japanese Polar-Orbiting Platform (JERS)
JSC		Johnson Space Center
JSC		Joint Scientific Committee (ICSU, WCRP, and WMO)
JSC-WCRP	Joint Scientific Committee for the WCRP (ICSU and WMO)
JST		Japan Standard Time
JTC		joint transfer correlation
JTU		Jackson turbidity unit

K

K		kelvin, unit of thermodynamic temperature (the number of kelvins equals the
		number of degrees Celsius plus 273.15)
ka		thousands of years
KAHE		time series station off Kahe Point, Hawaii
kbps		kilobits per second
KEEP		Kuroshio Edge Exchange Processes
KERFIX		Kerguelen fixed station (France) (JGOFS)
keV		kilo electron volts
kg		kilogram
kHz		kilohertz
kJ		kilojoule (energy measure)
km		kilometer
KNMI		Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute
Kow		octanol-water partition coefficient
kPa		kiloPascal (pressure above ambient (100 kPa = 1 atmosphere excess))
Kr		krypton
KSC		Kennedy Space Center (NASA)
KUM		Cape Kumukahi, Hawaii
kW		kilowatt
kWh		kilowatt hours (3.6 million joules)
kyr		kiloyear

L

L/C		land cover
L		liter
LAC		levelized annual cost
LAC		local area coverage
LAF		Lake Acidification and Fisheries (EPRI)
LAGCM		general circulation model at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)
LAGEOS		Laser Geodynamics Satellite
LAI		leaf area index
LAID		land-atmosphere interactions dynamics
LAMBADA		Large-scale Atmospheric Moisture Balance of Amazona using Data
		Assimilation (BAHC and GEWEX)
LAMP		Lake Acidification Mitigation Project (EPRI)
LAN		local area network
Landsat		Land Remote-Sensing Satellite (formerly
		ERTS) (NASA)
Landsat		land satellite (photographs of the ground)
LANL		Los Alamos National Laboratory
LANL/ACL	Los Alamos National Laboratory's Advanced Computing Laboratory
LAPAN		National Institute for Aeronautics and Space (Indonesia)
LaRC		Langley Research Center (NASA)
LASE		Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment
LASER		light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation
LASR		Library Access, Search, and Retrieval
LASS		Local Area Sounding System
lat.		latitude
LAWS		laser atmospheric wind sounder
LBL		Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (University of California)
LBL		line-by-line
LBLRTM		line-by-line radiative transfer model
LCC		land cover change
LCL		lifting condensation level
LDC		less-developed country
LDEO		Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory
LDGO		Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory
LDR		linear depolarization ratio
LEADEX		Leads Experiment
LEAPS		Low Electron Attachment Potential Species
LEBS		Low Emission Boiler Systems
LEFI		local electric field instrument
LEMA		Long-term Ecological Modelling Activity (GCTE)
LERTS		Laboratoire d'Etudes et de Recherches en Teledetection Spatiale (France)
LES		Lincoln Experimental Satellite
LFM		limited fine-mesh model
LGM 		Last Glacial Maximum
LHV		Lower Heating Value
LI		library
Lidar		laser-radar
Lidar		light detection and ranging (instrument)
LIDQA		Landsat Image Data Quality and Analysis
LIGA		Last InterGlacial in the Arctic (project)
LIMS		Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere
LIPI		Marine Pollution Monitoring Center (including LIPI's Network of the Center
		for Research and Development in Oceanography)
LIPI		Minister of State for Population and Research Environment (Indonesia)
LIPI		The Indonesian Institute of Sciences
LIRAD		lidar/radiometer
LIS		land information system
LIS		lightning imaging sensor
LITE		Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment
LLL		Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories
LLNL		Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
LLW		low-level waste
LMA		Laboratoire de Meteorologie
LMD		Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique
LMER		Land Margins Ecosystem Research
LMER		Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation (ORNL)
LMES		Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. ("Energy Systems" is preferred)
LNG		Liquified Natural Gas
LODYC		Laboratoire d'Oceanographic Dynamique et de Climatologie
LOICZ		Land-Ocean Interactions in the Coastal Zone
		(IGBP)
LOICZ-SSC	LOICZ Scientific Steering Committee
long.		longitude
LOIS		Land Oceans Interactions Study
LONGLINES	Long Hydrographic Sections Programme (U.S.)
LORAN		Long-Range Area Navigation System
LORCS		League of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies
LOTREX		Land-Ocean Interactions in the Coastal Zone (IGBP)
LOTREX		Longitudinal Land-Surface Traverse Experiment
LOTUS		Long-Term Upper Ocean Study, Woods Hole, 1983
LOWESS		locally weighted least squares
LP		Low Pressure
LPDA		laser-phased Doppler anemometer
LPDM		Lagrangian particle dispersion model
LPG		Liquid Petroleum Gas
LPI		low-pressure impactor
LPM		liters per minute
LR		laser retroreflector
LRA		laser retroreflector array
LRP		Landscape Research Project (DOE)
LRPT		low-resolution picture transmission
LSC		Lake Survey Center (NOAA)
LSD		least significant difference
LSM		LAWS Simulation Model
LSN		long- and short-normal resistivity (geophysical logging)
LST		local solar time
LST		local standard time
LTER		Long-Term Ecological Research (program) (NSF)
LTM		linear tangent model
LTM		long-term monitoring
LTREB		Long-Term Research in Environmental Biology
LTRMP		Long-Term Resource Monitoring Program (U.S.
		Fish and Wildlife Service)
LTRRS		Long-Term Regional Research Site
LUCC		Land Use and Cover Change (IGBP and HDP)
LUCC-CPPC	LUCC Core Project Planning Committee
LUCIE		Study of circulation north and west of Australia (Leeuwin Current)
LV		Large Volume water samples (>100 liters)
LVS		Large Volume Sampling
LVS		low-volume sampler
LW		longwave
LWC		liquid water content
LWIR		long-wavelength (thermal) infrared
LWP		liquid water path
LWRM		longwave radiation model

M

m		meter
M-region	Maunder region
M&CD		Metals and Ceramics Division (ORNL)
M&E		monitoring and enforcement
MAA		moist-adiabatic adjustment
MAB		Man and the Biosphere (programme) (UNESCO)
MABL		Marine atmospheric boundary layer
MAC		Middle Atmosphere Cooperation (IGAC)
MAC		Multiphase Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC)
MACDIF		Mapping and Charting Data Interchange Format (Canada)
MAESA		Measurements for Assessing the Effects of Stratospheric Aircraft
MAFF		Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food (U.K.)
MAGE		Marine Aerosol and Gas Exchange (IGAC)
MAGE		Marine Gas Emissions, Atmospheric Chemistry, and Climate (IGAC)
MAGIC		Model of Acidification of Groundwater in Catchment
MAGS		Mackenzie GEWEX Study (Canada)
Magsat		Magnetic Field Satellite
MAHLOVS		Middle and High Latitudes Oceanic Variability Study
MAKS		Martin and Kitzis Sampler (portable air sampler)
MAP		Middle Atmosphere Programme
MAP3S		Multistate Atmospheric Power Production Pollution Study
MAP3S/PCN	Multistate Atmospheric Power Production Pollution Study/Precipitation
		Chemistry Network
MAPS		Map Analysis Package System
MAPS		Measurement of Atmospheric Pollution from Satellites
MAPS		Mesoscale Analysis and Prediction System
MARC		The Middle Atmosphere Responses to Changes
MARDOS		"Sources of Radioactivity in the Marine Environment and Their Relative
		Contributors to Overall Dose Assessment from Marine Radioactivity" (IAEA CRP)
MARECO		Marine Radioecology Working Group (IUR)
MARIA		Methods for Assessing the Radiological Impact of Accidents (CEC)
MASC		Mountain Administration Support Center (NOAA)
MASFLEX		Marginal Sea Flux Experiment (in the West Pacific) (IGOPS)
MAST		Marine Science and Technology Programme (CEC)
MAT		marine air temperature
MATS		Mesoscale Atmospheric Transport Studies
MAW		Ministry of Agriculture and Water (Saudi Arabia)
MB		Manitoba
mb		millibar
Mbps		megabits per second
MBL		marine boundary layer
MBT		Mechanical Bathythermograph
MCC		mesoscale convective complex
MCC		Mission Control Center
MCF		Methane conversion factor
McIDAS		Man-computer Interactive Data Access System
MCL		maximum contaminant level
mcm		million cubic metre
MCP		Meteorological Communications Package (direct broadcast of operational data)
MCS		Mesoscale Cloud System
MCS		Mesoscale Convective Systems
MCSST		Multi-Channel Sea Surface Temperature (algorithm)
MCZ		Mesoscale Compressible Community Model
MDA		Methodology of Decision Analysis (project)
MDC		more developed country
MDE		Middle East
MDR		minimum detectable radiance
MDSRS		morphology-dependent stimulated Raman scattering
MEA		monoethanolamine
MECCA		Model Evaluation Consortium for Climate Assessment
MED		Mediterranean (the region) (START)
MEDCOM		Mediterranean Planning Committee (START)
MEDCOM		Mediterranean Regional Committee (START)
MEDIAS		Mediterranean and Subtropical Africa
MEDIAS		Mediterranean Basin and Sub-tropical Africa (regional research
		network)
MEDIAS		Reseau de Recherche Regionale pour le Bassin Mediterraneen et
		l'Afrique Subtropicale
MEDS		Marine Environmental Data Service (Canada)
MEHALICE	Methane and Halocarbons Intercalibrations Experiment (IGAC)
MELV		medium expendable launch vehicle
MEPED		medium energy proton and electron detector
MERGE		Model for Evaluating Regional and Global Effects of GHG reduction policies
MERIS		medium-resolution imaging spectrometer
MERIT		Monitoring Earth's Rotation and Intercomparison of Techniques
MERS		Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer
MES		Military Engineering Services
MESOSOFT	Mesoscale Data Management Facility
MESEEC		Methodologies to Estimate Social, Environmental, and Economic
		Consequences
MESSR		multispectral electronic self-scanning radiometer
METEOR		Operational Weather Satellite (Russian Federation; formerly U.S.S.R.)
Meteor		Research vessel (Germany)
METEOSAT	Geosynchronous Meteorology Satellite (ESA)
METEOSAT	European Geostationary Meteorological Satellite (EUMETSAT)
METOP		Meteorological Operational Satellite (polar satellite series)
MeV		mega electron volts
MFE		Magnetic Fusion Energy (program)
MFE/MAGNOLIA	MFE/Magnetic Field Experiment
Mflops		One megaflop equals 1 million (106) floating point operations
		per second
MFO		mixed-function oxidase (enzyme system)
MFRSR		multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer
mg		milligram
MGE		MicroStation Foundation and Modular GIS
		Environment (by Intergraph, Inc.)
MGO		Main Geophysical Observatory (Russia)
Mha		million hectare
MHRS		Modified Hazard Ranking System (DOE)
MHS		Message Handling System (electronic)
MHS		microwave humidity sounder
MHz		megahertz
MIADS		map information assembly and display system
MIAS		Marine Information Advisory Service (U.K.)
MIBK		methyl isobutyl ketone
mill(s)		0.001 U.S. dollars
MILOX		Mid-Latitude Ecosystems and Photochemical Oxidants (IGAC)
MIMD		multiple instruction, multiple data (system)
MIMR		multifrequency imaging microwave radiometer (formerly HIMSS)
MIMR		multiband/multifrequency imaging microwave
		radiometer
min		minute
MINK		Missouri-Iowa-Nebraska-Kansas
MIPAS		Michelson interferometer for passive atmospheric sounding (sounder)
MIPS		millions of instructions per second
MIR		Orbital System (Russia)
MIRSL		Microwave Remote Sensing Laboratory
MIS		management information system
MISR		multi-angle imaging spectro-radiometer
MIT		Massachusetts Institute of Technology (U.S.)
MITI		Ministry of International Trade and Industry (Japan)
MITRE		Massachusetts Institute of Technology
		Research Establishment
MITRE		Miniature Individual Transmitter Receiver Equipment
MIZ		Marginal Ice Zone
MIZEX		Marginal Ice Zone Experiment
MJ		megajoule
mks		meter-kilogram-second (measurement system; replaced by SI) (preferred over "MKS")
MKS		meter-kilogram-second (measurement system; replaced by SI) ("mksa" is preferred)
mksa		meter-kilogram-second-ampere (measurement system; replaced by SI) (preferred over "MKSA")
MKSA		meter-kilogram-second-ampere (measurement system; replaced by SI) ("mksa" is preferred)
mL		milliliter
MLE		maximum likelihood estimation
MLO		Mauna Loa Observatory (Hawaii) (CMDL)
MLOPEX		MLO Photochemical Experiment
MLOPEX II	Mauna Loa Observatory Photochemical Experiment II
MLR		multiple linear regression
MLS		microwave limb sounder
mm		millimeter
MM4		Mesoscale model 4 (Pennsylvania State University/NCAR)
MM5		Mesoscale model 5 (Pennsylvania State University/NCAR)
MMAD		mass median aerodynamic diameter
MM-Al		total monomeric aluminum
MMCH4		Methane emitted from animal manure
MMES		Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. ("Energy Systems" is preferred)
MMI		Modified Mercalli Intensities
mmscmd		million metric standard cubic metre per day
MMTS		Maximum-Minimum Temperature System
MNRT		Minister of State for Research and Technology
MOA		Memorandum of Agreement
MOBILHY		Mobilisation du Bilan Hydrique
MOC		Memorandum of Cooperation
MODE		Mid-Ocean Dynamics Experiment
MODECS		molecular design of chemical systems
MODIS		moderate-resolution imaging spectrometer (NASA/GSFC)
MODIS-N		moderate-resolution imaging spectrometer-Nadir
MODIS-T		moderate-resolution imaging spectrometer-tilt
MODMAP		modernization of mapping techniques
MOGUNTIA	Model of the General Universal Tracer transport in the Atmosphere
MOLA		Mars Observer Laser Altimeter
MOM		Mission Operations Manager
MOM		modular ocean model
MOMS		modular optoelectronic multispectral scanner
MONEX		Monsoon Experiment
MONSEE		Monitoring of the Sun-Earth Environment
MOP		Meteosat Operational Programme
MOPITT		Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere
MORACC		modeling radiation clouds, and convection
MORFLOT		Ministry of the Merchant Marine of the Soviet Union (Russian
		Federation; formerly U.S.S.R.)
MORS		Group of Experts Monitoring of Radioactive Substances in the Baltic Sea
MOS-1		Marine Observations Satellite-1 (Japan)
MOS		Marine Observations Satellite
MOS		model output statistics
MOSS		Map Overlay Statistical System (by Autometrics)
MOT		Ministry of Transport (Canada)
MOU		Memorandum of Understanding
MP		Medium Pressure
MPa		Megapascal
MPC		massively parallel computer
MPC		maximum permissible concentration
MPE		Mission to Planet Earth
MPF		momentary power failure
MPI		Max Planck Institute (Germany)
MPL		Marine Physical Laboratory
MPL		Micropulse Lidar
MR		Microwave Radiometer
MR		Methane Recovery
MRC		Medical Research Council
MRI		Meteorology Research, Inc.
MRIR		medium resolution infrared radiometer
MS		mass spectrometry (spectrometer)
MSA		methanesulfonate
MSC		Marine Sciences Council
MSC		Meteorological Satellite Center
MSFC		Marshall Space Flight Center
MSL		mean sea level
MSP		Motion-Sensing Platform
MSR		microwave scanning radiometer
MSS		multispectral scanner (Landsat)
MSS		multispectral scanner system
MST		Ministry of Environment and Science
MSU		microwave sounding unit
MSW		Municipal solid waste
MT		million tonne
MTCE		million tonnes of carbon equivalent
MT-CLIM		Mountain Climate Model
MTCR		million tonnes of coal replacement
MTMC		Military Traffic Management Command
MTOE		million tonnes of oil equivalent
MTS		microwave temperature sounder
MU		microwave unit
MUID		map unit identification data
MUIR		map unit interpretation record
MVS		Minimum-Variance-Simultaneous
mW		milliwatt
MW		megawatt
Mwh		megawatt hours
MWDI		Master Water Data Index
MWIR		medium-wavelength infrared
MWL		municipal waste leachate
MWR		microwave radiometer
MWSR		microwave water substance radiometer

N

N-C		Nitrogen-carbon ratio
N2		nitrogen
N2O		nitrous oxide
N2O5		nitrogen pentoxide, nitric anhydride
N2O-N		Nitrous oxide nitrogen trace gas emission ratio
NA		North America(n)
NAAQ		National Ambient Air Quality
NAAQS		National Ambient Air Quality Standards
NABE		North Atlantic Bloom Experiment (JGOFS and
		IGAC)
NACNEMS		North American Cooperative Network of Enhanced Measurement Sites
NAD 27		North American Datum of 1927
NAD 83		North American Datum of 1983
NADP		National Atmospheric Deposition Program (EPA)
NADP/NTN	National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network
NADW		North Atlantic deep water
NAEG		Nevada Applied Ecology Group
NAF		Northern Africa (START)
NAFCOM		Northern Africa Committee (START)
NAIC		Newly Agro-Industrialized Country
NAL		National Agricultural Library
NALMS		North American Lake Management Society
NAM		North America
NAMAS		National Measurement Accreditation Service
NAPAP		National Acid Precipitation Assessment
		Program
NAR		net assimilation rate
NARA		National Archives and Records Administration
NARC		National Atmospheric Radiation Centre (AES)
NARE		North Atlantic Regional Experiment (IGAC)
NARL		National Arctic Research Laboratory (Barrow, Alaska)
NARS		National Archives and Records Service (GSA)
NARSNDF		North Atlantic Regional Study Narrative Data File
NAS		National Academy of Sciences (U.S.)
NASA		National Aeronautics and Space Administration
		(U.S.)
NASA/EDC	NASA/Environmental Data Centre
NASC		North American Stratigraphic Code
NASCOM		NASA Communications Network
NASDA		National Space Development Agency
		(Japan)
NASM		National Air and Space Museum
NASQUAN		National Stream Water Quality Accounting Network
NAST		National Academy of Science and Technology
NATO		North Atlantic Treaty Organization
NATT		Northern Australian Tropical Transect
NAVSTAR		Navigation Satellite Timing and Ranging
Navstar		Global Positioning Satellite Communication Set
NAVSWC		Naval Surface Warfare Center (DOD)
NAWDEX		National Water Data Exchange (USGS)
NBIOME		Northern Biosphere Observation and Modeling Experiment
NBIS		Northern Biosphere Information System
NBRF		National Biomedical Research Foundation
NBRI		National Botanical Research Institute
NBS		National Biological Survey
NBS		National Bureau of Standards (now NIST)
NC		National Committee (IGBP)
NCAER		National Council of Applied Economic Research
NCAR		National Center for Atmospheric Research (NOAA) (Boulder, Colorado)
NCASI		National Council on Air and Stream Improvement
NCB		Net change of biomass
NCC		National Climatic Center (now NCDC)
NCC		Network Control Center
NCDC		National Climatic Data Center (Asheville, North
		Carolina) (NOAA)
NCDCDS		National Committee-Digital Cartographic
		Data Standards (American Congress Surveying & Mapping; formed 1982)
NCDS		NASA Climate Data System
NCE		Net carbon emission
NCEP		National Centers for Environmental Prediction
		(formerly NMC)
NCGIA		National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis
NCIC		National Cartographic Information Center
NCLAN		National Crop Loss Assessment Network (EPA)
NCMC		National Critical Materials Council
NCMRWF		National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting
NCP		National Climate Program
NCPDI		National Coastal Pollutant Discharge Inventory
NCPO		National Climate Program Office
NCRP		National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements
NCSA		National Center for Supercomputing Applications
NCS&T		National Council for Science and
		Technology (formerly FCCSET)
NCSU		North Carolina State University
NCV		net calorific value
NDBC		National Data Buoy Center
NDC		National Data Centre
NDC		Nondairy cattle
NDCDB		National Digital Cartographic Data Base
NDF		Narrative Data File
NDIR		non-dispersive infrared gas analyzer
NDP		numeric data package
NDPD		National Data Processing Division (EPA)
NDSC		Network for Detection of Stratospheric Change
NDVI		Normalized Difference Vegetation Index
NE		Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE)
NEA		Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD)
NEAPACC		North East Atlantic Palaeooceanography and Climate Change
NEB		National Environmental Board
NECT		National Research Council of Thailand
NEG		WOCE Numerical Experimentation Group
NEHA		National Environmental Health Association
NEIC		National Enforcement Investigations Center
NEIDA		National Estuarine Inventory Data Atlas
NEP		Noise Equivalent Power
NEPA		National Environmental Policy Act (1969)
NEPP		National Energy Policy Plan (DOE)
NERC		National Environmental Research Centre
NERDDC		National Energy Research, Development, and Demonstration Council
		(Australia)
NERI		National Environmental Research Institute
NERP		National Environmental Research Park
NERSC		National Energy Research Supercomputer Center
NES		National Energy Strategy
NES		National Eutrophication Survey
NES		nuclear estate with small holdings
NESDIS		National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service
		(NOAA)
NESDP		National Economic and Social Development Plan
NESHAP		National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants
NESS		National Environmental Satellite Service (NOAA)
netCDF		Network Common Data Format
NEXRAD		Next-Generation Weather Radar (NWS)
nf-EBM		noise forced energy balance model
NFERC		National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center
NFMA		National Forest Management Act (1976)
NGB		Nordic Gene Bank
NGDC		National Geophysical Data Center (NOAA)
		(Boulder, Colorado)
NGM		Nested Grid Model
NGO		nongovernmental organization
NGRS		National Geodetic Reference System
NGS		National Geodetic Survey (NOAA)
NGSDC		National Geophysical and Solar-Terrestrial Data Center
NGVD 29		National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929
NH3		ammonia
NH4+		ammonium
NH		National Highway
NH		Northern Hemisphere
NHAP		National High-Altitude Photography Program
NHC		United States National Hurricane Center
NHEML		United States National Hurricane Experimental Meteorological Laboratory
NHRC		National Hydrology Research Centre
NHRE		United States National Hail Research Experiment
NHRI		National Hydrology Research Institute
NHTSA		National Highway Traffic and Safety Administration (DOT)
NIAES		National Institute of Agro-Environmental Studies
NIC		Newly Industrialized Country
NIE		National Institute for the Environment
NIEHS		National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
NIES		National Institute for Environmental Studies
NIEs		newly industrializing economies
NIGEC		National Institute for Global Environmental Change
NIH		National Institutes of Health
NILU		Norwegian Institute for Air Research
Nimbus		NASA Meteorological Satellites (1 through 7)
Nimbus		Satellite Series to Meet the Needs of Atmospheric and Earth Scientists
NIO		National Institute of Oceanography
NIOSH		National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
NIP		normal incidence pyrheliometer
NIPDWS		National Interim Primary Drinking Water Standards
NIR		near infrared
NIRP		National Institute for Radiation Protection
NIST		National Institute of Standards and Technology
		(formerly NBS)
NISTEP		National Institute of Science and Technology Policy
NKA		Nordic Liaison Committee for Atomic Energy
NKO		Nederlandse Kalibratie Organisatie
NKS		Nordic Nuclear Safety Project
NLC		National Laboratory Consortium
NLE		National Library for the Environment
NLVF		Norway Agricultural Research Council
Nm3		Normal meter3
nm3		natural metre cubenm		nanometer
NMC		National Meteorological Center (now NCEP) (WWW)
NMFECC		National Magnet Fusion Energy Computer Center
NMFS		National Marine Fisheries Service (NOAA)
NMHC		nonmethane hydrocarbons
NMNH		National Museum of Natural History
NNMI		Nonlinear Normal Mode Initialization
NNSF		National Natural Science Foundation
NNSS		Navy Navigational Satellite System
NNWSI		Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (project)
NO		nitric oxide
NO2		nitrogen dioxide, nitrogen peroxide
NO3		nitrate radical
NOAA		National Oceanic and Atmospheric
		Administration (DOC)
NOAH		Nitrous Oxide and Halocarbons Division (CMDL)
NOBREX		North Brazil Current Experiment
NODC		National Oceanographic Data Center (NOAA)
NODC		National Ozone Data Center (NOAA)
NODS		NASA Ocean Data System
NOMHICE		Non-Methane Hydrocarbon Intercomparison Experiment (IGAC)
NOO		National Oceanographic Office
NOPEX		Northern Hemisphere Climate Processes Experiment (BAHC)
NORDA		Naval Ocean Research and Development Activity
NORDMAP		European Nordic Pollen Data Mapping Project
NORPAX		North Pacific Expedition
NOS		National Ocean Survey (NOAA)
NOSS		National Oceanic Satellite System
NOWES		Northern Wetlands Study
NOx		oxides of nitrogen (generic)
NOx		nitrogen oxides (NO, NO2, NO3, etc.)
NOx-N		Nitrogen oxides nitrogen trace gas emission ratio

NOy		total active nitrogen
NOZE		National Ozone Expedition
NP		neutron porosity (geophysical logging)
NPDES		National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System
NPIC		National Programme on Improved Chulhas
NPL		National Physics Laboratory
NPOP		NASA Polar Orbiting Platform
NPP		Net Primary Production (IGBP-DIS, and GAIM Working Group)
NPS		National Park Service (USDI)
NR		not reported
NRA		NASA Research Announcement
NRC		National Research Council (Canada)
NRC		National Research Council (U.S.) (NAS)
NRC		Nuclear Regulatory Commission (U.S.)
NRCC		National Research Council of Canada
NRCP		National Research Council for the Philippines
NRCT		National Research Council of Thailand
NREN		National Research and Education Network
NRL		Naval Research Laboratory
NROSS		Navy Remote Ocean Sensing System
NRP		National Research Program
NRPGC		National Research Program for Global Change
NRSA		National Remote Sensing Agency (India)
NSA		Northern Slope of Alaska
NSA/AAO		NSA/Adjacent Arctic Ocean
NSBF		National Scientific Balloon Facility
NSC		National Science Council
NSC		National Security Council
NSC		Norwegian Space Center
NSCAT		NASA scatterometer
NSERC		Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (Canada)
NSF		National Science Foundation
NSFNet		National Science Foundation Network
NSIDC		National Snow and Ice Data Center (University of Colorado, Boulder)
NSJI		North-South Joint Implementation
NSN		NASA Space Network
NSpC		National Space Council
NSPD		National Space Policy Directive
NSS		National Stream Survey
nss		non-sea-salt
NSSDC		National Space Science Data Center
NSSFC		National Severe Storms Forecast Center
NSSL		National Severe Storms Laboratory
NSTC		National Science and Technology Council (U.S.)
NSTL		National Space Technology Laboratories (NASA)
NSTS		National Space Transportation System
NSWS		National Surface Water Survey (EPA)
NTIS		National Technical Information Service (DOC)
NTN		National Trends Network
NTS		Nevada Test Site
NUC		National Underseas Research Center
NVI		normalized difference vegetation index
NWLISN		Northwest Land Information System Network
NWP		numerical weather prediction
NWPA		Nuclear Waste Policy Act (1982)
NWPM		Numerical Weather Prediction Model
NWR		Niwot Ridge (Denver, Colorado)
NWRC		National Weather Records Center
NWRI		National Water Research Institute (Canada)
NWS		National Weather Service (formerly U.S. Weather Bureau)
NWSRFS		National Weather Service River Forecast System (U.S.)
NWWA		National Water Well Association
NYU		New York University
NYU/Ultra	New York University's Ultracomputer (project)
NZOI		New Zealand Oceanographic Institute
NZP		National Zoological Park

O

18O		oxygen-18 (oxygen isotope with atomic weight of 18)
O&M		Operation and Maintenance
O/N		oxygen-to-nitrogen ratio
O2		(normal) molecular oxygen
O3		ozone
Ox		odd oxygen (O + O3)
OAR		Office of Atmospheric Research (NOAA)
OARM		Office of Administration and Resources Management
OAS		Organization of American States
OASIS		Observation at Several Interacting Scales
OAST		Office of Aeronautics Space Technology (NASA)
OAU		Organization of African Unity
OAXTC		Ocean Atmosphere Exchange of Trace Compounds
OCAM		Afro-Malagasy Common Organization
OCC		Operations Control Center
OCCAM		Ocean Circulation Climate Advanced Modelling (U.K.)
OCE		Oceania (START)
OClO	&#09:chlorine dioxide
OCN		Oceania
OCTS		ocean color and temperature sensor
o.d.		outside diameter
ODA		Official Development Assistance
ODA		Overseas Development Agency (U.K.)
ODAS		Oceanic Data Assimilation System
ODB		Orbit Determination Beacon
ODC		other data center
ODP		Ocean Drilling Program
ODP		ozone-depleting potential
OEC		Office of Environmental Compliance
OECD		Organization for Economic Cooperation and
		Development
OEG		Office of Environmental Guidance
OEP		Office of Economic Planning
OER		Office of Energy Research (DOE)
OES		Bureau of Oceans, International Environment, and Scientific Affairs
		(USDA)
OFDA		Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance
OFS		Office of the Foreign Secretary (NAS and NRC)
OGC		Oregon Graduate Center (now OGIST)
OGCM		ocean general circulation model
OGI		Oregon Graduate Institute (now OGIST)
OGIST		Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and
		Technology
OGWP		Office of Ground Water Protection (EPA)
OH		hydroxyl radical
OHER		Office of Health and Environmental Research
		(DOE)
OHF		Old Hydrofracture Facility (pond) (ORNL)
OHP		Operational Hydrology Programme (WMO)
OIEA		Office of Integrated Environmental Analysis (EPA)
OIRM		Office of Information Resources Management (EPA)
OIS		Operational Information Service (WWW)
OKCS		Oklahoma Climatological Survey
OLIPAC		Oligotrophic Pacific (France) (JGOFS)
OLR		outgoing long-wave radiation
OLS		operational license stage
OLS		operational line scanner
OLS		optical line scanner
OM-Al		organic monomeric aluminum
OMB		Office of Management and Budget (Independent)
OMCS		ozone monitor comparison system
OMDR		Optical Memory Disk Recorder Animation System
OMEX		Ocean Margin Exchanges
OMP		Ocean Margins Program
OMWOG		Ocean-based Measurements Working Group
ONEB		Office of National Environmental Board
ONR		Office of Naval Research (U.S.)
ONWI		Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation
OPAC		Online Public Access Catalog
OPC		ordinary portland cement
OPEC		Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
OPEX		Operational and Executive Personnel for Civil Service
OPM		Office of Personnel Management
OPPE		Office of Policy, Planning, and Evaluation (EPA)
OPS		optical sensor
OPT		Optimization Under Uncertainty Project
ORAU		Oak Ridge Associated Universities
ORD		Office of Research & Development (EPA)
ORISE		Oak Ridge Institute for Science Education
ORNL		Oak Ridge National Laboratory
ORNL/ACL	ORNL/Advanced Computing Laboratory
ORR		Oak Ridge Reservation
ORSTOM		Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique d'Outre-mer (Office
		of Overseas Scientific and Technical Research) (France)
OSB		Ocean Studies Board
OSC		Office of Scientific Computing (DOE)
OSC		Orbital Sciences Corporation
OSHA		Occupational Safety and Health Act (1970)
OSHA		Occupational Safety and Health Administration
OSR		Office of Sponsored Research
OSSA		Office of Space Science and Applications (NASA HQ)
OSSE		Observing System Simulation Experiments
OST		Office of Science and Technology
OSTI		Office of Scientific and Technical Information (DOE)
OSTP		Office of Science and Technology Policy
OSU		Oregon State University
OSWER		Office of Solid Waste and Energy Response (EPA)
OTA		Office of Technology Assessment
OTEC		ocean thermal energy conversion
OTS		Office of Toxic Substances (EPA)
OWDC		Office of Water Data Coordination (USGS)
OWRT		Office of Water Research and Technology (DOI)
OWS		Ocean Weather Station
OWSE		Operational WWW Systems Evaluation
OWSE-NA		Operational WWW Systems Evaluation -
		North America

P

P/R		productivity/respiration
P-Code		GPS precision transmission code
P		significance level (statistical)
Pa		Pascal (1N/m2)
PAAD		Program Assistance Approval Document
PAC		Polar Atmospheric Chemistry
PACER		Program for the Acceleration of Commercial Energy Research
PAD		Program Approval Document
PAF		Processing Archiving Facility
PAGES		Past Global Changes (IGBP)
PAGES-EXCOMM	PAGES Executive Committee
PAGES-SSC	PAGES Scientific Steering Committee
PAH		polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon
PAHO		Pan American Health Organization
PALE		Palaeoclimate from Arctic Lakes and Estuaries (PAGES)
PAM		Portable Automated Mesonet
PAN		peroxyacetylnitrate
PANASH		Paleoclimates of the Northern and Southern Hemisphere (PAGES)
PAR		photosynthetically active radiation
PAR		photosynthetically available radiation
PAR		Project Appraisal Report
PARCC		precision, accuracy, representativeness, completeness, and comparability
PASA		Participating Agency Service Agreement
PASC		Polar Atmospheric and Snow  Chemistry (IGAC)
PASE		Polar Air-Snow Experiment
PBL		planetary boundary layer
PBM		peribacteroid membrane
PBMR		Pushbroom Microwave Radiometer
PBU		peribacteroid unit
PC		personal computer
PC		Pulverized Coal
PCA		principal components analysis
PCAST		President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology
PCB		polychlorinated biphenyl
PCMDI		Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison
pCO2		partial pressure of CO2
PCU		platinum cobalt unit
PCR		polymerase chain technology
PCSSD		Philippines Council for Sustainable Development
PDA		phased-Doppler anemometer
PDB		isotope standard for carbon
PDB		Pee Dee Belemnite (Pee Dee River, South Carolina)
PDB		Pee Dee Belemnite (carbonate) isotope standard for C, O
PDE		partial differential equation
pdf		probability density function
PDL		polarization-diversity lidar
PDRCA		Participatory Development Resource Centre for Africa
PDS		Planetary Data System
PDS		photothermal deflection spectroscopy
PDSI		Palmer Drought Severity Index
PECO		CEC-COPERNICUS Program
PEGASUS		Current profiling system
PEM		Particle Environment Monitor
PEM		Particle modulator radiometer
PEMD		personalized educational materials development
PEM WEST	Pacific Exploratory Mission - West
PEP		Pole-Equator-Pole (PAGES) (Palaeoclimates
		Initiative for the Western Hemisphere)
PEPCase		Phosphenol-pyruvate carboxylase
PER		Program for Ecological Research
PERD		Panel for Energy Research and Development
PF		Pulverized Fuel (coal)
PFBC		Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustor
PFCs		perfluorocarbon compounds
PFRA		Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Administration
PFTs		perfluorocarbon tracers
Pg		pentagram
PG		planning group
PGC		Program Grande Carajas (Brazil)
PGS		Product Generation System
PHOXA		photochemical oxidant and acid deposition model application within the
		framework of control strategy development
PHSA		Public Health Service Act (1965)
PI		principal investigator
PIC		particle in cell
PIC		particulate inorganic carbon
PICES		North Pacific Marine Science Organization
PILPS		Project for Intercomparison of Land-surface Parameterization Schemes
		(GCIP/GEWEX)
PIO		Project Implementation Order (AID)
PIO/C		PIO for Commodities
PIO/P		PIO for Participant Training
PIO/T		PIO for Contract Technicians or Contract Services
PIP		Performance Improvement Program
PIP		Project Implementation Plan (AID)
PIP		WetNet Precipitation (algorithm)
		Intercomparison Project
PIR		precision infrared radiometer
PIRLA		Paleoecological Reconstruction of Recent Lake Acidification (EPRI)
PIXE		Proton induced x-ray emission analysis
PJ		petajoule
PL		public law
PLDS		Planetary Land Data System
PLDS		Pilot Land Data System
PM		photosynthetic measurements (JGOFS)
PM-2.5		particulate matter of diameter less than 2.5 micrometers
PM-10		particulate matter less than 10 micrometers diameter
PMC		pollen mother cell
PMC		Pressure-Modulator Cell
PMEL		Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (NOAA and ERL)
PMF		probable maximum flood
PMIP		Paleoclimate Modeling Intercomparison Project (NATO and PAGES)
PMIR		Pressure Modulator Infrared Radiometer
PMOD		Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos (WRC)
PMP		probable maximum precipitation
PMR		pressure-modulated radiometer
PNEDC		Programme Nationale d'Etude de la Dynamique du Climat (France)
PNL		Pacific Northwest Laboratory
PNNL		Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (formerly PNL)
PO4		phosphate
POC		particulate organic carbon
POCC		Payload Operations Control Center
POCM		parallel ocean-climate model
POD		Precision Orbit Determination
POEM		polar-orbiting earth observation mission (ESA)
POEMS		positron electron magnetic spectrometer
POES		Polar-Orbiting Environmental Satellite
POES		Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite
POGO		Polar-Orbiting Geophysical Observatory
Polarstern	Research vessel (Germany)
POLDER		Polarization and Directionality of the Earth's Reflectances
POLES		polar exchange at the sea surface
POLEX 		Polar Experiment (FGGE)
Polynya		Wind or current driven opening in winter sea-ice
POM		particulate organic matter
POM		polycyclic organic matter
PON		particulate organic nitrogen
POOZ		Permanently Open Ocean Zone
POP		Population
POSEIDON	Satellite programme (France)
PP		perfect program (approach)
ppb		parts per billion (109)
ppbv		parts per billion (109) by volume
PPFD		photosynthetic photon flux density
ppm		parts per million (106)
ppmv		parts per million (106) by volume
PPP		Polluter pays principle
PPP		Purchasing power parity
PPR		photopolarimeter radiometer
ppt		parts per trillion (1012)
pptv		parts per trillion (1012) by volume
PR		precipitation radar
PRARE		precise range and range-rate equipment (ERS-1)
PRAREE		precise range and range rate equipment-extended
PRC		People's Republic of China
PRC		precipitation
PRF		pulse repetition frequency
PRL		Physical Research Laboratory
PRN		Pseudo-Random Noise
PROBE		Pilot Radiation Observation Experiment
PRT		precision radiation thermometer
PSA		Pacific Sciences Association
PSAC		President's Science Advisory Committee
PSC		polar stratospheric clouds
PSD		prevention of significant deterioration (NPS,
		regulations of the CAA)
PSDPC		Polar Satellite Data Processing Centre
Psfc		surface pressure
PSFG		Permanent Service on the Fluctuation of Glaciers
psi		pounds per square inch
PSL		polystyrene latex
PSMSL		Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (U.K.)
PSO		Project Science Office
PSP		Precision Spectral Pyranometer
PSPDC		Polar Satellite Precipitation Data Centre
PSSI		Pacific/Sulfur/Stratus Investigation
PSU		Pennsylvania State University
PTB		Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig
PTFE		polytetrafluoroethylene
PU		processing unit
PUMS		Public Use Microdata Samples
PUSPITEK	Training Facilities in the Centre for Research, Science, and Technology
PV		potential vorticity
PVC		polyvinyl chloride
PW		precipitable water
PWD		Public Works Department
PWV		precipitable water vapor

Q

QA		quality assurance
QAMS		Quality Assurance Management Staff
QA/QC		quality assurance/quality control
QBO		quasi-biennial oscillation
QC		quality control
QCE		Quality Control Experts (WOCE Hydrographic
		Programme)
QLN		Quantitative Links Networks
QN		quinoline
QTL		Quantitative Trait Loci
QTO		quasi-triennial oscillation
Quads		Quadrillion (1015) Btu

R

r2		coefficient of determination (statistical)
R/C		Residue Crop ratio
R&D		research and development
R&SSD		Radiation and Safety Surveys Department (ORNL)
R/V		research vessel
RA		Radar altimeter
RA		Regional Association (WMO)
RA-2		POEM altimeter (ESA)
RA I		Regional Association I - Africa (WMO)
RA II		Regional Association II - Asia (WMO)
RA IV		Regional Association IV - North and Central America (WMO)
RAD		Radioecology Programme (NKS)
radar		radio detection and ranging
Radarsat	Synthetic Apeture Radar Satellite (Canada)
RADCAL		Radiation Calibration Laboratory
RADPATH		Biochemical Pathways of Artificial Radionuclides (CEC)
RAE		Royal Aircraft Establishment
RAFOS		SOFAR spelled backwards (float which
		receives sound signals)
RAI		Rainfall Anomaly Index
RAM		random-access memory
RAMP		Remote Atmospheric Measurements Program
RAMP		Remote Atmospheric Monitoring Project
RAMS		regional atmospheric modeling system
RAMS		Remote Atmospheric Measurements Systems
RAMS		Results Analysis and Management System (EPA)
RANN		Research Applied to National Needs (NSF)
RAOB		Radiosonde or Rawindsonde Observation
RAP		Remedial Action Program (DOE)
RAPD		Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique
RASC		Radio Atmospheric Study Centre
RASS		radio-acoustic sounding system
RAWG/Hydrology	Regional Associations' Working Groups on Hydrology (WMO)
RBV		return-beam Vidicon
rcf		relative centrifugal force
RCM		radiative-convective model
RCRA		Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
		(1976)
RCRE		required collaborative research experience
RCS		radar cross section
RCW		"Rapidly Changing World" Scenario (EPA)
RCWP		"Rapidly Changing World" Policy Scenario (EPA)
RDAAC		Remote Data, Analysis, and Archive Center
RDBMS		Relational Data Base Management System (Oracle)
RDP		Radar Development Project
RDT		remote data transmission
REFLEX		Remote Fluvial Experimental Series
REKLIP		Regional Climate Project (REgio-KLIma-Projekt)
RES		Regional Evaporation Study
RESA		Scientific Research Society of America
RESSAC		The Consequence of a Major Nuclear Accident on the Surrounding
		Environment: Soil and Surface Rehabilitation (CEC)
RET		renewable energy technologies
RF		radio frequency
RFE		Regional Finite Element (model)
RFD		Royal Forestry Department
RFLP		restriction fragment length polymorphism
RFP		Request for Proposals
RGA		reduction gas analyzer
RGA		relative growth rate
RGB		red-green-blue (signal)
RGCT		Reflective Gross Cloud Test
RGI		regional-global interactions
RGIS		regional geographic information system
RGR		relative growth rate
RGS		Royal Geographical Society
RH		relative humidity
RHIESSys	Regional Hydro-Ecological Simulation System
RI		radar interferometry
RIC		Regional Information Center
RICE		Rice Cultivation and Trace Gases Exchange (India) (IGAC)
RIDGE		Ridge Inter-Disciplinary Global Experiment
RIGES		Renewable Intensive Global Energy System
RIHMI-WDC	All-Russian Research Institute of Hydrometeorological Information-World
		Data Center
RILWAS		Regional Integrated Lake-Watershed Acidification Study (EPRI)
RIMI		Riso Integrated Environmental Project
RIS		reflector in space (laser beam adsorption, measures O3, CFCs, etc.)
RIS		retroreflector in space
RISC		reduced instruction set chip
RISC		reduced instruction set computer
RITS		radiatively important trace species
RIVM		Netherlands National Institute of Public Health and Environmental
		Protection
RK		river kilometer
RLU		relative light unit
RM		reference material
RM		river mile
RMC		Regional Meteorological Centre (WWW)
RMES		Relay Mirror Experimental Satellite
rms		root mean square (preferred over "RMS")
RMS		root mean square ("rms" is preferred)
rmse		root mean square error (preferred over "RMSE")
RMSE		root mean square error ("rmse" is preferred)
RMTC		Regional Meteorological Training Centre
Rn		radon
RNA		ribonucleic acid
RNMI		Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute
ROM		read-only memory
ROPME		Regional Organization for the Protection of the Marine Environment
		(IOC)
RPA		remotely piloted aircraft
RPE		Office of OECD, European Community, and
		Atlantic
RPM		Office of NATO and Atlantic Political-Military
		Affairs
rpm		revolutions per minute
RPN		Division de la recherche en prevision numerique
RPSS		relative partial sum of squares
RRC		Regional Research Centre (START)
RRCT		Reflectance Ratio Cloud Test
RRN		Regional Research Networks (START)
RRN ANT		RRN Antarctic
RRN ART		RRN Arctic
RRN CAA		RRN Central Arid Asia
RRN CAR		RRN Caribbean
RRN ESA		RRN Equatorial South America
RRN MED		RRN Mediterranean
RRN NAF		RRN Northern Africa
RRN OCE		RRN Oceania
RRN SAF		RRN Southern and Eastern Africa
RRN TAM		RRN Tropical Asian Monsoon Region
RRN TEA		RRN Temperate East Asia
RRN TNH		RRN Temperate Northern Hemisphere
RRN TSA		RRN Temperate South America
RRS		regional research sites (START)
RRTM		rapid radiative transfer model
RS		remote sensing
RSA		Republic of South Africa
RSAC		Remote Sensing Applications Center (China)
RSD		residual standard deviation
RSF		LANL computer code
RSMC		Regional/Specialized Meteorological Centre
RSR		rotating shadowband radiometer
rss		root-sum-square
RSS		rotating shadowband spectrometer
RSSD		Responses of Savannas to Stress and Disturbance (IUBS and MAB)
RT		radiative transfer
RTD		real-time data
RTH		Regional Telecommunication Hub
RTNEPH		real-time nephanalysis
RUC		Roskilde University Center
RUT		reflectance uniformity test
RVAU		Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University
RVB		return-beam Vidicon
RWC		Regional Warning Centre
RWVL		Raman Water Vapor Lidar

S

s		second (do NOT use "sec" for "second;" use "sec" for "secant")
S&R		search and rescue
S&T		science and technology
S-GCOS		Space-Based Global Change Observation System
SA90		IPCC Scenario A, 1990
SA		Selective Availability (on GPS transmissions)
SABLE		simulator atmospheric boundary layer environment
SAC		Special Analysis Centre (WOCE)
SAC		Satellite Application Centre
SAC		Scientific Advisory Committee
SAC		Scientific Advisory Council (IGBP)
SADC		Southern Africa Development Community
SADCC		Southern African Development Coordination Conference
SAF		Society of American Foresters
SAF		Southern, Central, and Eastern Africa (START)
SAFARI-92	South African Fire-Atmosphere Research Initiative
SAFCOM		Southern, Central, and Eastern Africa Regional Committee (START)
SAFIRE		spectroscopy of the atmosphere using far infrared emission
SAFISY		Space Agency Forum on International Space Year (1992)
SAGA		Soviet-American Gas and Aerosol Experiment
SAGE		Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment
SAGE III	Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III
SAHC		South Asia Hydrological Cycle
SAIC		Science Applications International Corporation
SAIL		Steel Authority of India Limited
SalArgos	Argos-located buoy equipped with temperature and conductivity sensors
SAM		Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement
SAM II		Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement
SAMBO		Simultaneous Auroral Multi-Balloons Observations
SAMS		stratospheric and mesospheric sounder
SAO		Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (U.S.)
SAP		Scientific Advisory Panel (SARCS)
SAR		Subcommittee on Atmospheric Research
SAR		synthetic aperture radar (satellite)
SARB		surface and atmospheric radiation budget
SARCS		Southeast Asia Regional Committee (START)
SARCS-SAP	SARCS Scientific Advisory Panel
SARSAT		Search and Rescue Satellite
SAS		Southern Asian Region (START)
SAS		Statistical Analysis System
SASANEE		South and Southeast Asia Network for Environmental Education
SASS		Seasat A Scatterometer System
SASI		Statistical Analysis Systems Institute (Raleigh, North Carolina)
SAT		surface air temperature
SATOBS		Satellite Observations
SATOR		Stratospheric and Tropospheric Ozone Research
SAVE		South Atlantic Ventilation Experiment
SAW		sawlog harvest
SBC		Brazilian Society for Cartography, Geodesy, Photogrammetry, and Remote
		Sensing
SBC		sum of base cations
SBIR		Small Business Innovation Research
SBUV		Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (experiment)
SBUV		Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (radiometer)
SBUV-2		Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet-2
SC		Scientific Committee (IGBP)
SC		standing committee
SCA		snow-covered areas
SCANSCAT	scanning scatterometer
SCAR		Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (ICSU)
SCARAB		Scanner for the Radiation Budget
SCARABE		Scanner for Radiative Budget Experiment
SCAT		radar scatterometer
SCATT		scatterometer
SCD		Scientific Computing Division (NCAR)
SCF		Scientific Computing Facility
SCIAMACHY	scanning, imaging, and absorption spectrometer for atmospheric cartography
SCIBP		Scientific Committee for the International Biological Programme
SC-IGBP		Special Committee of the International Geosphere Biosphere
		Programme (ICSU)
SCM		single-column model
SCOPE		Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (ICSU and IGBP)
SCOR		Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (ICSU)
SCORPIO		Oceanographic cruise in the South Pacific, 1968 (U.S.)
SCOSTEP		Scientific Committee on Solar-Terrestrial Physics
SCOT		Services Consultance en Observation de la Terre
SCPP		Seasonal to Interannual Climate Prediction Program
SCRIPPS		Scripps Institution of Oceanography (University of California at San
		Diego)
SCS		Soil Conservation Service (Anchorage, Alaska) (USDA and DOA)
SCS		Swiss Calibration Service
SCST		State Commission for Science and Technology (Survey of India)
SCW		"Slowly Changing World" Scenario (EPA)
SCWP		"Slowly Changing World" Policy Scenario (EPA)
SD		standard deviation
s.d.		standard deviation
SDAC		Satellite Data Analysis Center
SDC		Swiss Development Corporation
SDS		site data system
SDS		sodium dodecyl sulfate
SDSC		San Diego Supercomputer Center
SDSD		Satellite Data Services Division
SDSS		Spatial Decision Support System
SDTS		Spatial Data Transfer Standard
SDWA		Safe Drinking Water Act
SEAMEO		South East Asian Ministers  Education Organization
SEAREX		Sea-Air Exchange (program)
SEAS		Shipboard Environmental Data Acquisition System
Seasat		sea satellite (an oceanographic research satellite) (NASA)
SEASPAN		SEAREX South Pacific Aerosol
		Network
SeaStar		Spacecraft flying SeaWIFS
SEATO		Southeast Asian Treaty Organization
SeaWIFS		sea-viewing wide-field sensor
SEB		State Electricity Board
SEBEX		Sahelian Energy Balance Experiment
SEC		Science Executive Committee of  the IWG
sec		secant (trigonometric function) (do NOT use "sec" for "second;" use "s" for
		"second")
SECTIONS	Oceanographic Programme of the U.S.S.R.
SEDAC		Socio-Economic Data and Applications
		Center (CIESIN)
SEL		Standard Elektrik Lorenz (AG Stuttgart, Germany)
SELPER		Society of Latin American Remote Sensing Specialists
SELV		small expendable launch vehicle
SEM		scanning electron microscope
SEM		space environment monitor
SERC		Smithsonian Environmental Research Center
SERC		Science Executive Research Council (U.K.)
SERDP		Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program
SERI		Solar Energy Research Institute (Golden, Colorado)
SERON		Southeastern Regional Oxidant Network
SERP		Sedimentary Rock Program
SESAME		Severe Environmental Storms and Mesoscale Experiment
SESAME		Second European Stratospheric Arctic Middle Latitude Experiment
SESC		Space Environment Service Center
SETAC		Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
SF		screening factor
SFC		surface
SGCR		Subcommittee on Global Change Research
SGM		second-generation model
SGP		single Gauss point
SGP		Southern Great Plains
SGR		specific growth rate
SH		Southern Hemisphere
SHARE		Software Help for Applications, Research, and Education
SHEBA		Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean
SHPO		state historic preservation officer (Memphis)
SHSG		Spherical Harmonic Spatial Grid (model)
SI		International System of Units (Systeme International
		d'Unites) (standard metric units; replaced mks and mksa systems)
SI		Smithsonian Institution (Washington, D.C.)
SI		solar influences
SIAM		Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania)
SiB		simple biosphere (model)
SIDS		Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States
SIFE		Second ISCCP Field Experiment
SIG-WAIS	Special Interest Group-Wide Area Information Server
SIMD		Single Instruction, Multiple Data (system) (processor)
SINTEF		Norwegian Institute of Technology
SIO		Scripps Institution of Oceanography (La Jolla,
		California)
SiO3		silicate
SIP		Solar Influences Program
SIR		Scientific Information and Retrieval (system)
SIR		Shuttle Imaging Radar
SIR		Spaceborne Imaging Radar
SIR-C		Shuttle Imaging Radar-C
SIROS		solar and infrared radiation observation stations
SIRS		satellite infrared spectrometer
SISEX		Shuttle Imaging Spectrometer Experiment
SIT		Servizio di Taratura in Italia
SITE		Satellite Instructional Television Experiment
SIV		solar and interplanetary variability
SIZ		Seasonal Ice Zone
SJVF		Veterinary Agricultural Research Council
SK		Saskatchewan
SLA		Special Libraries Association
SLAR		side-looking airborne radar
SLB		shallow land burial
SLEJF		Sri Lanka Environmental Journalists Forum
SLIES		stratospheric limb infrared emission spectrometer
SLP		sea-level pressure
SLR		satellite laser ranging
SLR		sea level rise
SLS		stereo line scanner
SLURP		Simple Linear Unit Reservoir Program
Sm3		Standard meter3
SMC		System Management Center
SMCRA		Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act
SME		Society of Mining Engineers
SME		Solar Mesosphere Explorer
SMIC		Study of Man's Impact on Climate
SMM		Solar Maximum Mission
SM-MIMD		shared memory, multiple instruction, and multiple data (computer)
SMMR		scanning multichannel microwave radiometer
SMMR		scanning multifrequency microwave radiometer
SMO		Samoa Observatory (American Samoa) (CMDL)
SMOS		surface meteorological observation system
SMOW		standard mean ocean water isotope standard
SMS		Synchronous Meteorological Satellite
SMS/GOES	SMS/Geostationary Operational Environmental
		Satellite
SMY		solar maximum year
SN		Space Network
SNAS		Strategic National Alternatives Study
SNL		Sandia National Laboratories
SNL/PPG		SNL/Parallel Processing Group
SNOTEL		snow survey and remote telemetry
SNR		signal-to-noise ratio
SO		Southern Oscillation
SO2		sulfur dioxide
SO4		sulfate radical
Sox		Oxides of sulfur
SOA		state-of-the-art
SOC		Specialized Oceanographic Centre (IGOSS)
SOC		soil organic carbon
SOCC		Satellite Operation Command and Control
SOCEX		Southern Ocean Cloud Experiment
SOFAR		Sound Fixing and Ranging (float with sound
		source)
SOHO		Solar Heliospheric Observatory
SOI		Southern Oscillation Index
SOI		Survey of India
SOLSTICE	Solar Stellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment
SOMMA		single-operator multiparameter metabolic analyzer
SOP		Ship of Opportunity Programme
SOP		standard operating procedures
SOPAC		South Pacific Applied Geosciences Commission
SORTI		solar-radiance-transmission interferometer
SOS		Southern Oxidants Study
SOS/SONIA	SOS/Southeast Oxidant and Nitrogen Intensive
		Analysis
SOTER		Soil and Terrain Survey
SP		spontaneous potential (geophysical logging)
SPARC		stratospheric processes and their role in climate
SPADE		Stratospheric Photochemistry, Aerosols, and Dynamics Expedition
SPAN		Space Physics Analysis Network
SPARC		Stratospheric Processes and their Role in Climate
SPARCLE		Spaceborne Aerosols and Cloud Lidar Earthprobe
SPAS		Shuttle Pallet Satellite
SPECMAP		Mapping Spectral Variability in Global Climate Project
SPECTRE		Spectral Radiance Experiment
SPELDA		Structure Porteuse External pour Lancements Doubles Ariane (external
		support structure for Ariane dual-launches)
SPIE		Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers
SPM		suspended particulate matter
SPO		South Pole Observatory (Antarctica) (CMDL)
SPOT		Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre (France)
SPOT		Systeme Probatoire pour l'Observation de la Terre (France)
SPR		single point resistance (geophysical logging)
SPREP		South Pacific Regional Environmental Programme
SPREX		Spring Runoff Experiment (DOE)
SPSO		Science Processing Support Office
SR		scanning radiometer
SR		size-resolving
SRA		Society for Risk Analysis
SRAD		spectral radiometer
SRB		surface radiation budget
SRC		Saskatchewan Research Council
SRC		Science Research Council (formerly DSIR) (U.K.)
SRDC		Surface Reference Data Centre
SRF		Solar Radiation Facility (CMDL)
SRF		spectral response function
SRIC		short-rotation intensive culture
SRL		Shuttle Research Laboratory
SRM		standard reference material
SRP		soluble reactive phosphorus
SRS		Statistical Reporting Service
SRS1		South Research Station 1 (WOCE)
SRWCP		Short Rotation Woody Crop Program
SS		stainless steel (flasks)
SSA		singular spectrum analysis
SSALT		solid-state (radar) altimeter
SSARR		Streamflow Synthesis and Reservoir Regulation (model)
SSB		Space Science Board (NRC)
SSB		Space Studies Board
SSBUV		shuttle solar backscatter ultraviolet (radiometer)
SSC		Scientific Steering Committee (JGOFS, PAGES, and IGBP)
SSEC		Space Science and Engineering Center
SSG		Scientific Steering Group
SSHT		Sea Surface Height (above some reference ellipsoid)
SSI		Spectral Statistical Interpolation
SSM		special sensor microwave
SSM/I		SSM/imager
SSM/T		SSM/temperature
SSMI		Special Sensor Microwave Instrucments (Satellite)
SSMR-SSM/I	scanning multichannel microwave radiometer-SSM/I
SSP		scanning spectral polarimeter
SSSA		Soil Science Society of America
SSSD		state soil survey data base
SST		sea-surface temperature
SSU		stratospheric sounding unit
SSURGO		soil survey geographic data base (USDA and
		SCS)
ST		Steam Turbine
STA		Science and Technology Agency (Japan)
STA		Strategic Transportation Analysis (integrated transportation networks for
		MTMC)
STACS		Subtropical Atlantic Climate Study (U.S.)
STAP		Scientific and Technical Advisory Panel (GEF)
STAR		Space Three-Axis Accelerometer for Research
STARE		Southern Tropical Atlantic Region Experiment
START		System for Analysis, Research, and Training
		(IGBP, WCRP, and HDP)
START-SC	START Standing Committee
STEM		solar terrestrial environment model
STEP		Solar Terrestrial Energy Program
STIB		Stratosphere-Troposphere Interaction and the Biosphere (IGBP)
STIKSCAT	stick scatterometer
STIP		Study of Travelling Interplanetary Phenomena
STMW		Sub-Tropical Mode Water
STORET		Storage and Retrieval System (water quality data; EPA)
STORM		Storm-scale Operational and Research Meteorology (program)
STORM-FEST	Storm-scale Observations Regional Measurement Program-Fronts
		Experiment Systems Test
STP		standard temperature and pressure (0° and 1 atm)
STP		Subsurface Transport Program (DOE and OHER)
STRATOZ		Stratospheric Ozone (campaign)
STRESS		sediment transport events on shelves and slopes
STRI		Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute
STRIVE		Science Teachers Research Involvement for
		Vital Education (now TRAC)
STSB		Scientific and Technical Services Branch (BoM)
SUBSTA		Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice
SUBIM		Subsidiary Body on Implementation
SUNY		State University of New York
SUP		soluble unreactive phosphorus
SURE		Sulfate Regional Experiment
SURTROPAC	Survey of the Tropical Pacific Experiment (France)
SUSIM		Solar Ultraviolet Spectral irradiance monitor
Sv		Sverdrup (106m3s-1); Measure of water
		transport
SV		Small Volume water samples (< 10 liters)
SVAT		soil vegetation atmosphere transfer (model) (BAHC)
SVATS		Surface Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer Scheme
SW		shortwave
SWACOM		Standard Water Column Model
SWADE		Surface Wave Dynamic Experiment
SWCA		Soil and Water Conservation Act (1977)
SWCC		Second World Climate Conference (1990)
SWDA		Solid Waste Disposal Act
SWE		shallow-water equations
SWEDAC		Swedish Board for Technical Accreditation
SWF		social welfare function
SWG		Science Working Group
SWG		Standards Working Group
SWH		significant wave height
SWIR		short wavelength infrared
SWIRLS		stratospheric wind infrared limb sounder
SWSA		solid waste storage area
SWT		Science Working Team
SY		Seasonal Year

T

T/C		Temperature/Conductivity sensor chains on drifters
T/P SWT		TOPEX/Poseidon Science Working Team
T/S		Temperature/Salinity
TC/OPC		Technical Committee on Ocean Processes and Climate (Germany)
T		tonne
TA		trace analytical
TAAF		Terres Australes et Antarctiques Francaises (France)
TABLE		Tsukuba Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment
TAC		Tactical Air Command (U.S. Air Force bases) (now ACC)
TAE		Transportable Applications Executive (a computer user interface)
TAGA		trace atmospheric gas analyzer
Talk		total alkalinity
TAM		Tropical Asian Monsoon Region (START)
TAO		Tropical Atmosphere Ocean
TAO		Tradeable Absorption Obligation; also implicitly, tradeable (net) absorption
		obligation
TAP		Transboundary Air Pollution (project)
TAPPI		Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry
TARFOX		Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observation Experiment
TBD		to be determined
TCA		trichloracetic acid
TCAD		Tradeable Carbon Absorption Obligation
TCDC		technical cooperation among developing countries
TCLP		Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (EPA)
TCO		Technical Cooperation Activities (WMO)
TCO2		total CO2
TCP		Tropical Cyclone Programme (WMO)
TCP/IP		Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
TCR		tonnes of coal replacement
TDC		Tropical Data Centre
TDDR		total direct diffuse radiometer
TDL		Techniques Development Laboratory
TDLAS		tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer
TDLS		tunable diode laser spectroscopy
TDMA		tandem differential mobility analyzer
TDR		time domain reflectometry
TDRS		Tracking and Data Relay Systems
TDRSS		Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System
TDS		total dissolved solids
TDY		temporary duty
TEA		Temperate East Asia (START)
TEA-COM		Temperate East Asia-Planning Committee (START)
TEAM		Technology Base Enhancement for Autonomous Machines
TEAMA		Terrestrial Ecosystems in Monsoon Asia
TEC		total electron content
TECO		Terrestrial Ecological Research Initiative
TECO		terrestrial ecosystems
TED		Technological and Economic Dynamics
TED		total energy detector
TEDDY		TERI Energy Data Directory Yearbook
TEESE		TERI Energy Economy Simulation Evaluation
TEGD		Technical Enforcement Guidance Document (EPA)
TEHM		Terrestrial Ecosystem Hydrology Model
TEM		Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (GAIM)
TERI		Tata Energy Research Institute
TERLS		Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station (India)
TERRA		Terrestrial Ecosystem Regional Research  and Analysis (Laboratory)
TERSE		Tunable Etalon Remote Sounder
TES		tropospheric emission spectrometer
TF		throughfall
TFAP		Tropical Forestry Action Plan (coordinated by FAO)
Tflops		One teraflop equals 1 trillion (1012) floating point operations
		per second
Tg		Teragrams or million tonnes
TG		trace gas
TGCR		thermal gross cloud restoral
TGCT		thermal gross cloud test
TGDDIS		Trace Gas Dynamics Data Information System
TGI		temperature growth index
TGT		TDRSS Ground Terminal
TI		thermal imagery
TIA		Territorial and International Affairs
TIC		total inorganic carbon
TIGER		Terrestrial Initiative in Global Environmental
		Research (U.K.)
TIGER		Topologically Integrated Geographic
		Encoding and Reference (system) (BOC)
TIGER/GICS	TIGER/Geographic Identification Code
		Scheme (U.S. Census Bureau)
TIGER/GRF-N	TIGER/Geographic Reference File-Names
		(BOC)
TIGGER 		Earth sciences dimension to TIGER
TIGR		TOVS initial guess retrieval
TIMSS		thermal infrared spectral scanner
TIN		Triangular Irregular Network
TIR		thermal infrared
TIROS		Television and Infrared Observation Satellite
TIROS		Topographic Infrared Operations Satellite
TIRS		thermal infrared scanner
TISAB		total ionic strength adjustment buffer (analytical method)
TISGLOW		TERI Information Service on Global
		Warming
TKE		turbulent kinetic energy
TL		Team Leader
TLCF		Team Leader Computing Facility
TLV		threshold limit value
TM		team member
TM		Thematic Mapper (Landsat)
TMACS		International Mathematics and Computer Simulations
TMC		Thinking Machine Corporation
TME		tropical mountain ecosystems (IUBS and MAB)
TMI		TRMM microwave imager
TMR		TOPEX microwave radiometer
TMS		thematic mapper simulator
TMS		Typical Shape Functions, Maximum A Posteriori Simultaneous
TNH		Temperate Northern Hemisphere (START)
TOA		top of the atmosphere
TOA		tropical ocean-atmosphere (array)
TOC		total organic carbon
TOCE		tonne of carbon equivalent
TOCSEEG		Tradeoffs Among Competing Social, Environmental, and Economic
		Goals
TOF		theoretical orthogonal function
TOGA		Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere
		(program) (WCRP)
TOGA-COARE	TOGA Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere
		Response Experiment
TOMCAT		Toulouse Off-Line Model of Chemistry and Transport
TOMS		total ozone mapping spectrometer (experiment)
TOMS		total ozone measuring satellite
TOMUIS		3-D ozone mapping with ultraviolet imaging spectrometer
TON		total organic nitrogen
TOPEX		Topography Experiment
TOPEX		Topography Ocean Experiment (NASA and CNES)
TOPEX/POSEIDON	Ocean Topography Experiment (NASA/CNES Satellite Programme)
TOR		Tropospheric Ozone Research (EUROTRAC)
torr		pressure in millimeters of mercury with respect to vacuum
TOS		TIROS Observational System
TOVS		TIROS
		operational vertical sounder
TOX		total organic halides
TRAC		Teacher Research Associate (program)
		(formerly STRIVE)
TRACE-A		Transport and Atmospheric Chemistry near the Equator-Atlantic
TRAGEX		Trace Gas Exchange between Midlatitude Terrestrial Ecosystems and
		Atmosphere (IGAC)
TRANSPAC	Trans-Pacific Experiment
TRANSIT		Satellite Navigation (position location) System (U.S.)
TREES		Tropical Ecosystem Environmental Observations by Satellite
TREM		Tropical Rainfall Experimental Mission
TRL		Transuranium Research Laboratory
TRMM		Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (U.S.-Japan)
TROPOZ		Tropospheric Ozone (Campaign)
TRSC		Thailand Remote Sensing Centre
TRUCE		Tropical Urban Climate Experiment
TSA		Temperate South America (START)
TSAR		Time-series Storage and Retrieval (system)
TSC		Transportation Systems Center (DOT)
TSCA		Toxic Substances Control Act (1976)
TSD		Treatment, Storage, and Disposal (facilities)
Tsfc		surface temperature
TSI		Thermo Systems, Inc.
TSL		Technical Services Laboratory
TSP		total soluble phosphorus
TSP		total suspended particles
TSS		total suspended solids
TSS		Total Surveying Systems
TT		task team
TTO		total toxic organic (compounds)
TTO		transient tracers in the ocean (survey)
TUNES		Thomas Washington's Unexpected Nautical Extravaganza South-north
		(expeditions)
TUR		thermal uniformity restoral
TUT		thermal uniformity test
TVA		Tennessee Valley Authority (U.S. Independent)
TWAS		Third World Academy of Science
TWP		tropical Western Pacific
TWPO		Tropical Western Pacific Ocean
TWRA		Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency
TWT		Traveling Wave Tube

U

UAF		University of Alaska-Fairbanks
UAOB		Upper Air Observation
UARP		Upper Atmosphere Research Program
UARS		Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (NASA)
UATI		Union des Associations Techniques Internationals
UAV		unmanned aerospace vehicle
UBA		Umweltbundesamt (Germany)
UC		University of California
UCAR		University Corporation for Atmospheric Research
UCI		University of California, Irvine
UCLA		University of California at Los Angeles (U.S.)
UCR		University of California at Riverside
UCRL		UC Radiation Laboratory
UCS		Secretariat to the U.S. National Commission
UCSB		University of California, Santa Barbara
UCSF		University of California at San Francisco
UEA		University of East Anglia (U.K.)
UDF		UAV demonstration flights
UFACNC		ultrafine aerosol condensation nucleus counter
UGAMP		U.K. Universities Global Atmospheric Modelling Project
UGM		University of Gadjah Mada, Indonesia
UH		University of Heidelberg (Germany)
UHF		ultra high frequency
UIC		Ukpeaguik Inupiat Corp.
UIC		Underground Injection Control (program)
UI/CSRD		University of Illinois/Center for Supercomputing Research and
		Development
UITA		Union of International Technical Associations
U.K.		United Kingdom (preferred over "UK"; use as
		adjective only; spell out as noun)
UKAEA		U.K. Atomic Energy Authorities
UKMO		U.K. Meteorological Office
ULS 		upward-looking sonar
ULST		uniform low stratus test
UMTA		Urban Mass Transportation Administration (DOT)
UMTRAP		Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program
UMTRCA		Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act
UN		United Nations
UNARS		Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite
UNCED		United Nations Conference on the Environment and Development
UNCHS		United Nations Commission for Human Settlement
UNCTAD		United Nations Commission on Trade and Development
UNCTAD		United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
UNDP		United Nations Developmental Program
UNDRC		Office of the United Nations Disaster Relief Coordinator
UNEC		United Nations Economic Committee
UNEP		United Nations Environmental Programme (ICSU)
UNESCO		United Nations Educational, Scientific,
		and Cultural Organization
UNFCCC		United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
UNFPA		United Nations Program for Population
UNGA		United Nations General Assembly
UNGCRP		United Nations Global Change Research Program
UNHCR		Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
UNICEF		United Nations Children's Fund
UNIDO		United Nations Industrial Development Organization
UNIFEM		United Nations Development Fund for Women
UNISIST		United Nations System for Scientific and Technological Information
UNITAR		United Nations Institute for Training and Research
UNJSPF		United Nations Joint Staff Pension Fund
UNM		University of New Mexico
UNO		United Nations Organization
UNP		United Nations Political Affairs
UNRWA		United Nations Relief and Works Agency
UNSCEAR		United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic
		Radiation
UNSO		United Nations Sudano-Sahelian Office
UNTAB		United Nations Technical Assistance Board
UNU		United Nations University
UPS		uninterruptible power supply
UPU		Universal Postal Union
URAS		(a commercial CO2 analyzer)
URI		University of Rhode Island, Narragansett
URL		Uniform Resource Locator (Mosaic)
URL		upper range limit
URSI		International Union of Radio Science
US-AID		U.S. Agency for International Development
U.S.		United States
U.S.A.		United States of America
USACE		United States Army Corps of Engineers (DOD)
USAF		United States Air Force
USBCF		United States Bureau of Commercial Fisheries
USBM		United States Bureau of Mines
USBR		United States Bureau of Reclamation (USDI)
USCG		United States Coast Guard
USCGS		United States Coast and Geodetic Survey
USDA		United States Department of Agriculture
USDA-SCS	United States Department of Agriculture-Soil Conservation Service
USDC		United States Department of Commerce (also
		DOC and USDOC)
USDD		United States Department of Defense (also
		USDOD and DOD)
USDI		United States Department of the Interior (also
		DOI and USDOI)
USDOC		United States Department of Commerce
		(also DOC and USDC)
USDOD		United States Department of Defense (also
		DOD and USDD)
USDOE		United States Department of Energy (also
		DOE)
USDOI		United States Department of the Interior (also
		DOI and USDI)
USDW		usable supply of drinking water
USEPA		United States Environmental Protection Agency (also EPA)
USFS		United States Forest Service (USDA)
USFWS		United States Fish and Wildlife Service
USGCRP		United States Global Change Research Program
USGCRPO		United States Global Change Research Program Office
USGS		United States Geological Survey (DOI)
USIA		United States Information Agency
US-IGBP		United States Geosphere/Biosphere Program
USJGOFS		United States Joint Global Ocean Flux Study
USMAB		United States Man and the Biosphere
USMAPS		United States Map Analysis Package System
USN		United States Navy
USNC/IHP	United States National Committee for IHP
USNC/SH		United States National Committee on Scientific Hydrology
USNMAS		United States National Map Accuracy Standard
USO		ultra-stable oscillator
U.S.S.R.	Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (now
		Russian Federation)
USWB		United States Weather Bureau
USWOCE		United States component of WOCE
UT		universal time
UT		University of Tennessee
UTC		Universal Time Coordinate
UTM		Unified Transport Model
UTM		university transverse mercator (cartography)
uv		ultraviolet (preferred over "UV")
UV		ultraviolet ("uv" is preferred)
uv-A		ultraviolet type A
uv-B		ultraviolet type B (280-320 nanometer wavelength interval)
UVR		ultraviolet radiation
uv-vis		ultraviolet-visible (spectroscopy)
UW		University of Washington (Seattle)
UW		University of Wisconsin
UWG		user working group
UW/UD		University of Wisconsin/University of Denver

V

V-PDB		international scale for expressing C and O isotopic composition relative to
		PDB carbonate
VACM		Vector Averaging Current Meter
VAD		velocity azimuth display
VAM		vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza
VAMP		Validation of Model Project (IAEA)
VAS		VISSR atmospheric sounder (GOES)
VEI		volcano explosivity index
VCP		Voluntary Cooperation Program (Equipment and Services) (UN)
VCP (ES)	Voluntary Cooperation Program (Equipment and Services) (UN)
VCP (F)		Voluntary Cooperation Program (fund)
vfr		very far radiation
vhf		very high frequency
VHRR		very high resolution radiometer
VHSA		variable hydrologic source areas
VIRS		visible infrared scanner
VIRSR		visible infrared scanning radiometer
VIS		visible
VISSR		visible and infrared spin scan radiometer (GOES)
VLBI		very long baseline interferometry
VLSI		very large scale integration
VMS		Virtual Memory System
VMVM		Vector Measuring Current Meter
VNIR		visible and near infrared
VOC		volatile organic compound
VOS		voluntary observing ship (WMO)
VSSC		Vikram Sarabhai Space Center
VTIR		visible and thermal infrared radiometer
VTPR		vertical temperature profile radiometer
VTR		video tape recording

W

w		watt
WAIS		West Antarctic Ice Sheet (project) (PAGES)
WAMEX		West African Monsoon Experiment
WARC		World Administrative Radio Conference
WATOX		Western Atlantic Ocean Experiment
WATFLOOD	University of Waterloo Flood Forecasting System (Canada)
WATSTORE	Water Data Storage and Retrieval System (USGS)
WB		World Bank
WBC		Western Boundary Current
WBDCS		Wide-Band Data Collection System
WBIS		Walker Branch Information System
WBW		Walker Branch Watershed (introduced as an "experimental facility")
WCAP		World Climate Applications Program (WMO)
WCASP		World Climate Applications and Services Program (WMO)
WCDMP		World Climate Data and Monitoring Program (WMO)
WCDP		World Climate Data Program
WCIP		World Climate Impact Program
WCIRP		World Climate Impact Assessment and Response Strategies Program
		(UNEP)
WCP		World Climate Programme (WMO/ICSU)
WCRP		World Climate Research Programme (WMO, ICSU, and IOC)
WCRP-JSC	Joint Scientific Committee (WCRP)
WD		wind direction
WDC		World Data Center (ICSU)
WDCGG		World Data Centre for Greenhouse Gases (JMA/WMO)
WDSD		Water Data Sources Directory (USGS)
WEAVE		Water and Energy: Atmospheric, Vegetative, and Earth Interactions
WEBB		Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Budget (USGS)
WEC		World Energy Council
WECC		Western European Calibration Cooperation
WEFAX		weather facsimile (via geosynchronous weather satellite)
WENPEX		Western North Pacific Cloud-Radiation Experiment
WEO		Western European Organization (ECOSOC
		region comprising W. Europe, Canada, U.S., and Japan)
WES		Waterways Experiment Station (USACE)
WESTPAC		IOC - Programme Group on the Western
		Pacific
WET		waste extraction test
WetNet		Network for Distribution and Joint
		Analysis of SSM/I Data (MSFC)
WEU		Western Europe
WEV		Water Energy-Vegetation
WEVS		Wetland Ecosystem Vulnerability Study
WFC		World Food Council (UN)
WFEO		World Federation of Engineering Organizations
WFF		Wallops Flight Facility
WFOV		Wide Field of View
WFP		World Food Program
WG		working group
WGEP		working group on energy policy
WGDM		working group on data management
WGGC		working group on global change
WGNE		working group on numerical experimentation (JSC/CAS)
WGR		Waste Generation Rate
WGRF		working group on radiative fluxes
WHO		World Health Organization
WHOI		Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (Massachusetts)
WHP		WOCE Hydrographic Programme
WIHG		Waclia Institute of Himalayan Geology
WILASS		Water Infiltration in Layered Subfreezing Snow (program)
WIND		weather information display
WINDII		Wind Imaging Interferometer
WIPO		World Intellectual Property Organization
WIRP		Watershed Integrated Research Program (DOE)
WISP		Winter Icing and Storms Programs
WITS		World Ionosphere Thermosphere Study
WMC		World Meteorological Center (WWW)
WMO		World Meteorological Organization (ICSU)
WMS		World Magnetic Survey
WOCE		World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WCRP)
WOCE/HP		WOCE/Hydrographic Program
WODC		World Ozone Data Center
WOVO		World Organization of Volcano Observatories
WP		wind profilers
WPCF		Water Pollution Control Federation
WPL		Wave Propagation Laboratory (NOAA)
WPR		Water Resource Planning
WRC		Water Resources Council
WRC		World Radiation Center
WRD		Water Resources Division (USGS and DOI)
WRDD		Water Resources Development Department (MAW)
WRI		World Resources Institute (Washington, D.C.)
WRR		World Radiometric Reference
WRRC		Water Resources Research Center
WS		wind speed
WSC		Water Survey of Canada
WSI		whole-sky imager
WSMC		Western Space and Missile Center
WST		Whitecap simulation tank
WTH		whole-tree harvest
WTR		Western Test Range (NASA)
WUA		weighted usable area
WVR		water vapor radiometer
WWB		Women's World Banking
WWF		World Wildlife Fund
WWW		World Weather Watch (WMO)
WWO		Waste Water Outflow
WWSP86		Winter Weddell Sea Project 1986
WWW		World Wide Web

X

X-SAR		X-Band synthetic aperture radar
XBT		expendable bathythermograph (oceanography)
XCTD		Expendable Conductivity Temperature Depth (probe)
XDR		external data representation
XIE		X-ray Imaging Experiment
XMM		X-ray Multi-mirror Mission
XRD		X-ray diffraction

Y

year		(do not abbreviate this word)
yr		year (spell out)

Z

ZEEI		Exclusive Economic Zone of Indonesia
ZPC		zero point of change (hydrous iron and aluminum oxides)

 

Contents taken from Global Change Acronyms and Abbreviations, 1995. ORNL/CDIAC-83, Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Edited by: Cindy T. Woodard and Frederick W. Stoss.

Glossary terms can be found in the Glossary list.

Carbon dioxide-related conversion tables can be found in the Conversion Tables list.