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Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions from the Middle East
The Middle East, as represented here, is 15 nations and the Occupied Palestinian Territory. The region may contribute a large fraction of the world's oil but through their own energy consumption produce only 6.4% of global CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and cement. The Middle East, due to the CO2 emitted during the Kuwaiti oil field fires, exhibited a dramatic singularity of CO2 emissions for 1991. The 1991 Kuwaiti oil field fires resulted in 130 million metric tons of carbon being emitted to the atmosphere, more than the 2008 total fossil-fuel CO2 emissions of the 11th largest national emitter, Mexico. The three major fuel consumers discharge 65% of the region's fossil-fuel CO2: Iran, 146.8 million metric tons of carbon in 2008; Saudi Arabia, 118.2 million metric tons of carbon; and Turkey, 77.4 million metric tons of carbon. Gas flaring has been a major source of regional emissions, and in a few years during the early 1970s, before infrastructure was available for gas use and reinjection, flaring accounted for almost half of the total fossil-fuel CO2 emissions. Growth has been nearly continuous since 1950, although it started from a very low base. Per capita emissions underwent rapid growth until 1973, changed little during the late 1970s and 1980s, crept upwards during the 1990s, and have grown appreciably since 1999 to exceed the global average. Based on our methodology, three Middle Eastern countries are among the five highest national per capita CO2 emission rates in the world for 2008 - Qatar (14.58 metric tons of carbon per person), United Arab Emirates (9.43), and Bahrain (7.90).
CITE AS: Boden, T.A., G. Marland, and R.J. Andres. 2011. Global, Regional, and National Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, Tenn., U.S.A. doi 10.3334/CDIAC/00001_V2011