New CDIAC Data Products, Publications, and Activities
- The Global Carbon Project (GCP) released its Global Carbon Atlas at http://www.globalcarbonatlas.org. CDIAC is an important contributor to the GCP. The Atlas was released at the Warsaw Climate Change Conference in November 2013, and it had more than 24,000 unique visits from 164 countries in the first week after release.
- One CDIAC data set was updated online: Andres RJ, Boden TA, Marland G (2013) Monthly Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions: Isomass of Emissions Gridded by One Degree Latitude by One Degree Longitude, 1950-2010. ORNL/CDIAC, electronic database. doi 10.3334/CDIAC/ffe.MonthlyIsomass.2013.
- The number of stations in CDIAC's DayRec: An Interface for Exploring U.S. Record-Maximum/Minimum Daily Temperatures has more than doubled from 200 to 424. This was accomplished through a very slight relaxation of the missing data criteria at each station. The 200-station, 2012 version of DayRec lacked stations over the southwestern U.S. In November 2013, the addition of 224 stations improved coverage in the southwest and also increased station density over the rest of the country.
- Bob Andres attended the Development of a Community Historical Emission Inventory meeting in Hamburg, Germany from 20-21 November 2013. He gave a talk entitled "Potential contributions from the CDIAC fossil fuel CO2 emissions inventory to the development of a community historical emission inventory (emission years 1850-2010?)".
- Four CDIAC data sets were updated in November:
- Andres RJ, Boden TA, Marland G (2013) Annual Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions: Mass of Emissions Gridded by One Degree Latitude by One Degree Longitude, 1751-2010. ORNL/CDIAC, electronic database. doi 10.3334/CDIAC/ffe.ndp058.2013.
- Andres RJ, Boden TA, Marland G (2013) Monthly Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions: Mass of Emissions Gridded by One Degree Latitude by One Degree Longitude, 1950-2010. ORNL/CDIAC, electronic database. doi 10.3334/CDIAC/ffe.MonthlyMass.2013.
- Andres RJ, Boden TA, Marland G (2013) Annual Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions: Isomass of Emissions Gridded by One Degree Latitude by One Degree Longitude, 1751-2010. ORNL/CDIAC, electronic database. doi 10.3334/CDIAC/ffe.AnnualIsomass.2013.
- Andres RJ, Boden TA, Marland G (2013) Annual Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions: Global Stable Carbon Isotopic Signature, 1751-2010. ORNL/CDIAC, electronic database. doi: 10.3334/CDIAC/ffe.db1013.2013.
- Daily data from the United States Historical Climatology Network (USHCN) are now available as NetCDF files.
- Bob Andres is a contributor to a paper entitled, "Regional CO2 flux estimates for 2009–2010 based on GOSAT and ground-based CO2 observations", which was published in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (doi:10.5194/acp-13-9351-2013). In the paper the authors applied a global carbon cycle modeling system to the estimation of monthly regional CO2 fluxes from spectral observations made by the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT).
- Bob Andres is a coauthor on the paper, "Estimation of regional surface CO2 fluxes with GOSAT observations using two inverse modeling approaches" which was published in Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 8529, Remote Sensing and Modeling of the Atmosphere, Oceans, and Interactions IV, 85290G. doi:10.1117/12.979664. The authors applied two inverse modeling approaches to analysis of observations from the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) of atmospheric carbon dioxide and produced estimates of the seasonal and interannual variations of the regional CO2 fluxes.
Bob Andres is also a coauthor on the article, "The Use of a High-Resolution Emission Data Set in a Global Eulerian-Lagrangian Coupled Model" in Lagrangian Modeling of the Atmosphere (eds J. Lin, D. Brunner, C. Gerbig, A. Stohl, A. Luhar and P. Webley), American Geophysical Union, Washington, D. C.. doi: 10.1029/2012GM001263.
- Changes in the global ocean mean of carbon-13 in dissolved inorganic carbon (δ13CDIC) are thought to reflect the balance of erosion and sequester of carbonate over very long geologic periods and changes in the size and composition of the terrestrial active organic carbon pools over shorter time spans. CDIAC has extracted δ13CDIC observations from the GLODAP and CARINA databases covering 1990-2005 from all oceans and all depths. The combined database of 17,989 δ13CDIC observations has been used by Schmittner et al. in a new three-dimensional model of 13C cycling in the ocean to examine large-scale carbon movements. Model results suggest that the uptake of anthropogenic carbon has reduced the spatial gradients in δ13CDIC that were present in the preindustrial surface ocean.
- CDIAC has updated fossil-fuel emission estimates through 2010. Since 1751 approximately 365 billion metric tonnes of carbon have been released to the atmosphere from the consumption of fossil fuels and cement production. Half of these fossil-fuel CO2 emissions have occurred since the mid-1980s. The 2010 global fossil-fuel carbon emission estimate—9,167 million metric tons of carbon—represents an all-time high and a 4.9% increase over 2009 emissions. The data visualization page for global, regional, national, and USA time series and gridded data is being updated with the 2010 estimates.
- Bob Andres conbtributed to a reply to a comment (doi:10.1038/nclimate1817) on the paper, Atmospheric verification of anthropogenic CO2 emission trends in the journal, Nature Climate Change (doi:10.1038/nclimate1925).
- AGAGE data have been updated through September 2012. Measurements of CFC-115 at Jungfraujoch, Switzerland, back to April 2008 are included in this version. CFC 115 (CClF2CF3), or Chloropentafluoroethane, is an ozone-depleting substance, that was primarily used as a refrigerant. It has an atmospheric lifetime of 1700 years and a 100-year global warming potential of 7,370. The latest update also includes the following:
- Measurements of HCFC 142b (CH3CF2Cl) and HCFC 22 (CHClF2) at Jungfraujoch for August-September 2012,
- Hydrogen (H2) data for both Mace Head, Ireland, and Cape Grim, Tasmania, in the "gc-md" directory. These data have been converted to a new MPI2009 scale. Please see the "H2calibration_2013_v01.doc" (or "H2calibration_2013_v01.pdf" file) file for more information about this new scale.
- Recent MEDUSA methyl bromide (CH3Br) Zeppelin (Norway) site.
- Isotopes "Gateway" pages have been posted. The Gateway pages to isotope data are now posted and available by clicking on "Carbon Isotopes" "Deuterium" or "Oxygen Isotopes" in our list of atmospheric trace gases (under "Data" in our top navigation bar). As for the other gateway pages to date, either modern records or ice core data are available.
- An oxygen gateway page has been posted. Records of atmospheric oxygen since 1989 are available from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography. Links to data and graphics can now be found by clicking on "Oxygen" on our list of atmospheric trace gases.
- The paper Monitoring and understanding changes in heat waves, cold waves, floods and droughts in the United States: State of knowledge, by Peterson, T.C., et al., (on which CDIAC's Dale Kaiser was a lead author) has been published in the June 2013 edition of the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, and includes supplementary material that was not available in the previously announced early online release.
- Bob Andres attended the 9th International Carbon Dioxide Conference in Beijing, China from 2-7 June 2013. He showed the poster, "A new look at the uncertainty associated with CDIAC estimates of global carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption" with co-author Tom Boden of CDIAC. Bob also was a co-author on three other presentations at the meeting.
- The PACIFICA Database (NDP-092) has been published in CDIAC. PACIFICA (PACIFic ocean Interior CArbon) was an international collaborative project for the data synthesis of ocean interior carbon and its related parameters in the Pacific Ocean. The North Pacific Marine Science Organization (PICES), Section of Carbon and Climate (S-CC) supported the project. Individual cruise data can be downloaded from the CDIAC cruise summary table, and data products are available in the CDIAC PACIFICA FTP area.
CDIAC has merged hydrographic/hydrochemical datasets from a total of 213 cruises, including those from cruises conducted between the late 1980s and 2000 but not stored in GLODAP, as well as CLIVAR/CO2 Repeat Hydrography datasets from the 2000s. The adjustment values were suggested to account for the analytical offsets in the data of dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, salinity, oxygen, and nutrients (nitrate and nitrite, phosphate, and silicic acid) for each cruise as a result of the secondary quality control procedure, based on the crossover analysis for the data from deep layers (Tanhua et al., 2010). We also merged a total of 59 adjusted datasets from Line P off the west coast of Canada. Finally, we have produced the adjusted PACIFICA database that consists of datasets from a total of 306 cruises that also include 34 datasets from WOCE Hydrographic Program cruises in the Pacific Ocean conducted in the 1990s.
Note that the quality of data taken in the WHP/Repeat Hydrography cruises are usually among the best, but several of them have also been offset-adjusted in the data product as a result of the secondary quality check. The individual cruise data also have been or will be exported to CCHDO, JODC, and US-NODC, so that they can be accessed more widely through the IOC/IODE network for oceanographic data exchange and World Data System under ICSU in the future. Reference information for the PACIFICA Database CDIAC can be found here.
- The LDEO (Takahashi) Database V2012 [NDP-088(V2012)] is now available at CDIAC. Approximately 6.7 million measurements of surface water pCO2 made over the global oceans during 1957-2012 have been processed to make a uniform data file. Measurements made in open oceans as well as in coastal waters are included. The data assembled include only those measured using equilibrator-CO2 analyzer systems, and have been quality-controlled based upon the stability of the system performance, the reliability of calibrations for CO2 analysis, and the internal consistency of the data. To allow re-examination of the data in the future, a number of measured parameters relevant to pCO2 in seawater are listed as well.
This version is referred to as Version 2012, and includes the data collected through 31 December 2012. In this update, about 277,000 pCO2 measurements made during 29 new cruise/ship files are added to the previous version 2011. The new additions include the new data from our field operations. These data files are also posted on the LDEO website.
- Bob Andres was a co-author on the paper, "The global carbon budget 1959–2011", which was published in the jornal, Earth System Science Data.
Annual mean of monthly mean maximum temperature from 1889 to 2012 at Tombstone, Arizona
- Bob Andres is a co-author on the paper, "Inverse modeling of CO2 fluxes using GOSAT data and multi-year ground-based observations. Scientific Online Letters on the Atmosphere", published in the journal, Scientific Online Letters on the Atmosphere (doi:10.2151/sola.2013-011).
- Dale Kaiser was the lead author on the heat waves and cold waves section of the new paper Monitoring and understanding changes in heat waves, cold waves, floods and droughts in the United States: State of knowledge, by Peterson, T.C., et al., in the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, currently published as an early online release.
- Bob Andres was an author on the recent paper, "Improving the temporal and spatial distribution of CO2 emissions from global fossil fuel emission data sets", published in the Journal of Geophysical Research (doi:10.1029/2012JD018196).
- Recent Greenhouse Gas Concentrations have been updated to reflect the 2012 CO2 concentration updates from NOAA, and the 2011 concentrations of selected halogenated compounds as measured by AGAGE. Globally averaged CO2 concentration for 2012 was close to 393 ppm, while methane and nitrous oxide concentrations also continue to increase. The 2012 CO2(eq) concentration is estimated by TJ at 476 ppm.
- CDIAC has updated the daily data included in NOAA's United States Historical Climatology Network (USHCN) Database through 2012. The files include daily maximum and minimum temperature, daily precipitation amount, daily snowfall amount, and daily snow depth from 1218 stations across the contiguous U.S. A graphical user interface enables plotting and downloading of data from individual stations. Monthly temperature data are expected to be available in March 2012.
- Bob Andres attended the 4th North American Carbon Program All-Investigators Meeting in Albuquerque, New Mexico from 4-7 February 2013. He showed the poster, "A new uncertainty estimate of global carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption and an implication for the source/sink nature of the terrestrial biosphere" with co-author Tom Boden of CDIAC. Bob also was a co-author on one other presentation at the meeting.
- Five CDIAC online data sets have been updated. They include:
- Andres RJ, Boden TA, Marland G, (2013) Annual Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions: Mass of Emissions Gridded by One Degree Latitude by One Degree Longitude, 1751-2009. ORNL/CDIAC, electronic database. doi 10.3334/CDIAC/ffe.ndp058.2012.
- Andres RJ, Boden TA, Marland G, (2013) Monthly Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions: Mass of Emissions Gridded by One Degree Latitude by One Degree Longitude, 1950-2009. ORNL/CDIAC, electronic database. doi 10.3334/CDIAC/ffe.MonthlyMass.2012.
- Andres RJ, Boden TA, Marland G, (2013) Annual Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions: Isomass of Emissions Gridded by One Degree Latitude by One Degree Longitude, 1751-2009. ORNL/CDIAC, electronic database. doi 10.3334/CDIAC/ffe.AnnualIsomass.2012.
- Andres RJ, Boden TA, Marland G, (2013) Monthly Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions: Isomass of Emissions Gridded by One Degree Latitude by One Degree Longitude, 1950-2009. ORNL/CDIAC, electronic database. doi 10.3334/CDIAC/ffe.MonthlyIsomass.2012.
- Andres RJ, Boden TA, Marland G (2013) Annual Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions: Global Stable Carbon Isotopic Signature, 1751-2009. ORNL/CDIAC, electronic database. doi: 10.3334/CDIAC/ffe.db1013.2012.
- Bob Andres was a coauthor on two refereed journal publications:
- Francey RJ, Trudinger CM, van der Schoot M, Law RM, Krummel PB, Langenfelds RL, Steele LP, Allison CE, Stavert AR, Andres RJ, Rödenbeck C (2013) Atmospheric verification of anthropogenic CO2 emission trends. Nature Climate Change. doi:10.1038/NCLIMATE1817.
- Saeki T, Maksyutov S, Sasakawa M, Machida T, Arshinov M, Tans P, Conway TJ, Saito M, Valsala V, Oda T, Andres RJ (2013) Carbon flux estimation for Siberia by inverse modeling constrained by aircraft and tower CO2 measurements. J. Geophys. Res. 118:1-23. doi:10.1002/jgrd.50127.
- The gridded fossil-fuel CO2 emission products web pages, pointers, DOIs, and search XMLs have been updated. The 2012 version of these databases present time-series estimates on a 1° latitude × 1° longitude of CO2 emissions in units of million metric tons of carbon from fossil-fuel consumption and cement production per year and annual, global mean value of δ 13C of CO2 emissions from anthropogenic sources for 1751-2009. Detailed geographic information on CO2 emissions can be critical in understanding the pattern of the atmospheric and biospheric response to these emissions. Carbon isotopic signatures reflect the changing mix of coal, petroleum, and natural gas being consumed and the changing mix of petroleum from various producing areas with characteristic isotopic signatures. A new interface has been developed for users to query, visualize, and download the latest CDIAC fossil-fuel CO2 emission estimates.
- The NASA/GISS surface air temperature time series produced by Dr. James Hansen and colleagues, which provides a measure of the changing global surface temperature, has been updated through 2012. The global average surface temperature in 2012 was the ninth warmest since 1880 (see the 2013 NASA press release), continuing a trend in which nine of the ten warmest years in the modern meteorological record have occurred since the year 2000. With the exception of 1998, the nine warmest years in the 132-year record all have occurred since 2000, with 2010 and 2005 ranking as the hottest years on record.
- The global and hemispheric temperature time series of Jones et al., produced jointly by the Climatic Research Unit at the University of East Anglia (UK) and the Hadley Center of the UK Meteorological Office, have been updated through 2012. 2012 was the tenth warmest year in the global record. The northern and southern hemisphere annual trend series show some general similarities, but there are several notable differences. A steady period of warming is seen for the northern hemisphere from about 1910 through the mid-1940s. For the southern hemisphere, there is less warming observed from about 1910 through 1930, with sudden and rapid warming from about 1930 through the mid-1940s. The northern hemisphere record shows gradual cooling from the mid-1940s through the mid-1970s, followed by rather steady temperature increases thereafter. The southern hemisphere shows an abrupt shift to cooler temperatures after 1945, quite variable temperatures until the mid-1960s, followed by a gradual increase over the remainder of the record.